The Alternative English Dictionary: and

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Entry definition

and {{wikipedia}} pronunciation
  • (stressed) {{enPR}} /ænd/
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  • (unstressed) {{enPR}} /ən(d)/, /ɛn/, /n̩/
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  • {{rhymes}}
etymology 1 From Middle English and, an, from Old English and, ond, end, from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi, *undi, *unþi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti 〈*h₂énti〉. Cognate with Scots an, North Frisian en, West Frisian en, in, Low German un, Dutch en, German und, Danish end, Swedish än, Icelandic enn, Albanian edhe (dialectal ênde, ênne) , ende, Latin ante, and Ancient Greek ἀντί 〈antí〉. Alternative forms: et (obsolete)
conjunction: {{en-con}}
  1. As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
    1. Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs. {{defdate}}
      • c. 1430 (reprinted 1888), Thomas Austin, ed., Two Fifteenth-century Cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with Extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55 [Early English Text Society, Original Series; 91], London: for the Early English Text Society, volume I, 374760, page 11: Soupes dorye. — Take gode almaunde mylke … caste þher-to Safroun an Salt …
      • {{RQ:Authorised Version}}: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
      • 1817, Jane Austen, Persuasion: as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
      • 2011, Mark Townsend, The Guardian, 5 November: ‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
    2. Simply connecting two clauses or sentences. {{defdate}}
      • 1991, Jung Chang, Wild Swans: When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
      • 2011, Helena Smith & Tom Kington, The Guardian, 5 November: "Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
    3. Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first. {{defdate}}
      • 1996, David Beasley, Chocolate for the Poor: ‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
      • 2004, Will Buckley, The Observer:, 22 August: One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
    4. (obsolete) Yet; but. {{defdate}}
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Matthew XXII: Hee said, I goe sir, and went not.
    5. Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now chiefly UK); to connect fractions to wholes. {{defdate}}
      • 1863, Abraham Lincoln, ‘Gettysburg Address’: Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that "all men are created equal".
      • {{RQ:Sinclair Jungle}} In Chicago these latter were receiving, for the most part, eighteen and a half cents an hour, and the unions wished to make this the general wage for the next year.
      • 1956, Dodie Smith, (title): The One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
    6. (now colloquial or literary) Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, First Folio, II.2: And these does she apply, for warnings and portents, / And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
      • 1939, Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, The Wizard of Oz (screenplay): Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!
    7. Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition. {{defdate}}
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Psalms CXLV: I will extol thee, my God, O king; and I will bless thy name for ever and ever.
      • 2011, Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, 18 March: He was at work in a nearby city when the tsunami struck. ‘As soon as I saw it, I called home. It rang and rang, but there was no answer.’
    8. Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause. {{defdate}}
      • 1918, George W. E. Russell, Prime Ministers and Some Others: The word "capable" occurs in Mr. Fisher's Bill, and rightly, because our mental and physical capacities are infinitely varied.
      • 2008, The Guardian, 29 Jan 2008: President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly sincere in his belief that he, and he alone, can save Pakistan from the twin perils of terrorism and anarchy.
    9. Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Revelation XIV: And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps{{nb...}}.
      • 1861, Charles Dickens, Great Expectations: ‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth{{nb...}}.
      • 1914, Saki, ‘The Lull’, Beasts and Superbeasts: ‘And, Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair{{nb...}}.’
    10. (now regional or somewhat colloquial) Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after come, go and try. {{defdate}}
      • 1817, Jane Austen, Sanditon: Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
      • 1989, James Kelman, A Disaffection: Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
    11. Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other". {{defdate}}
      • 1936, The Labour Monthly, vol. XVIII: Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
      • 1972, Esquire, vol. LXXVIII: "There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
    12. Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb). {{defdate}}
      • 1791, James Boswell, Life of Samuel Johnson: ‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed{{nb...}}.’
      • 1871, Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There: ‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one?’
  2. (heading) Expressing a condition.
    1. (now US dialect) If; provided that. {{defdate}}
      • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur, Book VII: "Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew XIV: Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
      • 1958, Shirley Ann Grau, The Hard Blue Sky: "And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
    2. (obsolete) As if, as though. {{defdate}}
      • 1600, William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream, I.2: I will roare you, and 'twere any Nightingale.
    3. (obsolete) Even though.
      • Francis Bacon As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs.
  • {{seeCites}}
{{rel-top}} Beginning a sentence with and or other coordinating conjunctions is considered incorrect by classical grammarians arguing that a coordinating conjunction at the start of a sentence has nothing to connect, but use of the word in this way is very common. The practice will be found in literature from Anglo-Saxon times onwards, especially as an aid to continuity in narrative and dialogue. The OED provides examples from the 9th century to the 19th century, including one from Shakespeare’s King John:Arthur. Must you with hot Irons, burne out both mine eyes? Hubert. Young boy, I must. Arthur. And will you? Hubert. And I will.” It is also used for other rhetorical purposes, especially to denote surprise (O John! and you have seen him! And are you really going?—1884 in OED) and sometimes just to introduce an improvised afterthought (I’m going to swim. And don’t you dare watch—G. Butler, 1983) It is, however, poor style to separate short statements into separate sentences when no special effect is needed: I opened the door and I looked into the room (not *I opened the door. And I looked into the room). Combining sentences or starting with in addition or moreover is preferred in formal writing. and is often omitted for contextual effects of various kinds, especially between sequences of descriptive adjectives which can be separated by commas or simply by spaces (The teeming jerrybuilt dun-coloured traffic-ridden deafening city—Penelope Lively, 1987) and all is a well-established tag added to the end of a statement, as in Isn’t it amazing? He has a Ph.D. and all—J. Shute, 1992 With the nominal meaning “also, besides, in addition”, the use has origins in dialect, as can be seen from the material from many regions given in the English Dialect Dictionary (often written in special ways, e.g., , , ). In many of the examples it seems to lack any perceptible lexical meaning and to be just a rhythmical device to eke out a sentence. {{rel-bottom}} Synonyms: (used to connect two similar words or phrases) as well as, together with, in addition to, (informal) &, 'n', +
etymology 2 From Middle English ande, from Old English anda and Old Norse andi; both from Proto-Germanic *andô, from Proto-Indo-European *ane-. Cognate with German Ahnd, And, Danish ånde, Swedish anda, ande, Icelandic andi, Latin animus. Related to onde. Alternative forms: aynd, eind, eynd, yane, end
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK dialectal) Breath.
  2. (UK dialectal) Sea-mist; water-smoke.
etymology 3 From Middle English anden, from Old English andian and Old Norse anda; both from Proto-Germanic *andōną. Cognate with German ahnden, Danish ånde, Swedish andas, Icelandic anda. See above. Alternative forms: eind, eynd, ein
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (UK dialectal, intransitive) To breathe; whisper; devise; imagine.
  • {{rank}}
  • ADN; dan, Dan, Dan., DAN; DNA; nad, NAD; NDA

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