The Alternative English Dictionary

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Colourful extracts from Wiktionary. Slang, vulgarities, profanities, slurs, interjections, colloquialisms and more.


rug up
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (transitive) To put a rug on a horse
    • 1913, VM/SAC, Veterinary Medicine & Small Animal Clinician Volume 8, Page 677 The mare was naturally very weak and almost in a state of collapse, so we gave her half a pint of neat whisky, rugged her up, and rubbed her all over with embrocation.
  2. (intransitive, informal, Australia) To put on layers of warm clothes; to wrap up
    • 2005, Gary Brown, Beach and Rock Fishing To us, a rainy day may mean that we have to rug up and stay inside out of the elements, but the coming of a storm or the rising swell will find a mulloway that lives and feeds along the beaches, waiting around a river entrance for the mullet...
ruh-roh pronunciation
  • (US) /ˈɹʌʔˌɹoʊ/
etymology First used by Astro on the cartoon The Jetsons and later by Scooby-Doo in the Scooby-Doo cartoon series; both characters are dogs who speak broken English with the insertion of many r's.
interjection: {{en-interj}}
  1. (humorous) alternative form of uh-oh
    • 2007, Robert Thompson & Barbara Fritchman Thompson, Building the Perfect PC, O'Reilly (2007), ISBN 9780596526863, page 228: After we finished securing the motherboard, we planned to shoot an image of the rear I/O panel to show that none of the grounding tabs were obstructing ports. Ruh-roh. When we got down to shoot a close-up, we were surprised to see that both Gigabit Ethernet ports were obstructed, {{…}}
    • 2011, Kristan Higgins, Until There Was You, Harlequin (2011), ISBN 9781459215252, unnumbered page: Ruh-roh, Posey thought. Something was about to hit the fan.
    • 2012, Roxanne St. Claire, Don't You Wish, Delacorte Press (2012), ISBN 9780375985775, page 352: Missy makes a face. “Ruh-roh. He sounds mad."
    • {{seemoreCites}}
ruin etymology From Middle English ruine, from Old French ruine, from Latin ruīna, from ruō. pronunciation
  • (UK) /ˈɹuːɪn/, /ˈɹʊɪ̯n/
  • (US) /ˈɹuːɪn/, /ɹuːn/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (countable, sometimes, in the plural) The remains of a destroyed or dilapidated construction, such as a house or castle.
  2. (uncountable) The state of being a ruin, destroyed or decayed. exampleThe monastery has fallen into ruin.
  3. (uncountable) Something that leads to serious trouble or destruction. exampleGambling has been the ruin of many.
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) The errors of young men are the ruin of business.
    • {{RQ:RnhrtHpwd Bat}} The Bat—they called him the Bat.{{nb...}}. He…played a lone hand,{{nb...}}. Most lone wolves had a moll at any rate—women were their ruin—but if the Bat had a moll, not even the grapevine telegraph could locate her.
  4. (obsolete) A fall or tumble.
    • George Chapman (1559-1634) His ruin startled the other steeds.
  5. A change that destroys or defeats something; destruction; overthrow. examplethe ruin of a ship or an army;  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    • Thomas Gray (1716-1771) Ruin seize thee, ruthless king!
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (transitive) to cause the ruin of.
    • 1883, , In one way, indeed, he bade fair to ruin us; for he kept on staying week after week, and at last month after month, so that all the money had been long exhausted...
  2. To destroy or make something no longer usable. He ruined his new white slacks by accidentally spilling oil on them.
    • Longfellow By the fireside there are old men seated, / Seeling ruined cities in the ashes.
  3. To upset or mess up the plans or progress of, or to put into disarray; to spoil. My car breaking down just as I was on the road ruined my vacation.
Synonyms: destroy, fordo, ruinate, wreck
  • build
  • construct
  • found
  • produce
related terms:
  • ruination
  • ruinable
  • ruiner
  • ruinous
ruined pronunciation
  • (US) {{audio-IPA}}, /ɹu:nd/
verb: {{head}}
  1. en-past of ruin
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (slang) incapacitated by drug or alcohol
  • indure, inured
rule {{wikipedia}} etymology
  • noun: from Middle English rule, from Old French riule, borrowed from Latin regula, from regere; see regent.
  • verb: from Middle English rulen, from Old French riuler, from Latin regulare, from regula; see regular.
  • (RP) /ˈɹuːl/, [ˈɹuːɫ]
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A regulation, law, guideline.
    • Tillotson We profess to have embraced a religion which contains the most exact rules for the government of our lives.
    • {{quote-magazine}}
  2. A ruler; device for measuring, a straightedge, a measure.
    • South A judicious artist will use his eye, but he will trust only to his rule.
  3. A straight line continuous mark, as made by a pen or the like, especially one lying across a paper as a guide for writing.
  4. A regulating principle.
    • c. 1604, William Shakespeare, All's well that ends well, Act I, scene I: There's little can be said in 't; 'Tis against the rule of nature.
  5. The act of ruling; administration of law; government; empire; authority; control.
    • Bible, Hebrews xiii. 17 Obey them that have the rule over you.
    • Alexander Pope His stern rule the groaning land obeyed.
  6. A normal condition or state of affairs. My rule is to rise at six o'clock. exampleAs a rule, our senior editors are serious-minded.
  7. (obsolete) Conduct; behaviour.
    • Shakespeare This uncivil rule; she shall know of it.
  8. (legal) An order regulating the practice of the courts, or an order made between parties to an action or a suit. {{rfquotek}}
  9. (math) A determinate method prescribed for performing any operation and producing a certain result. a rule for extracting the cube root
  10. (printing, dated) A thin plate of brass or other metal, of the same height as the type, and used for printing lines, as between column on the same page, or in tabular work.
related terms:
  • regulate
  • regent
  • regular
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (transitive) To regulate, be in charge of, make decisions for, reign over.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, 13 , [ The Mirror and the Lamp] , “And Vickers launched forth into a tirade very different from his platform utterances. He spoke with extreme contempt of the dense stupidity exhibited on all occasions by the working classes. He said that if you wanted to do anything for them, you must rule them, not pamper them. Soft heartedness caused more harm than good.”
  2. (slang, intransitive) To excel. exampleThis game rules!
  3. (transitive) To mark (paper or the like) with rules lines.
  4. (intransitive) To decide judicially.
    • {{quote-magazine}}
  5. (transitive) To establish or settle by, or as by, a rule; to fix by universal or general consent, or by common practice.
    • Atterbury That's a ruled case with the schoolmen.
Synonyms: (to excel) rock (also slang)
  • (to excel) suck (vulgar slang)
  • lure
Rule 34 {{wikipedia}} etymology From a list of “Rules of the Internet” originally circulated on 4chan by members of , in which the rule was formulated as "if it exists, there is porn of it".
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (Internet slang, informal) The proposition that there is at least one pornographic depiction of anything and everything; and, especially, that the resulting pornography is accessible through the Internet.
Rule 63 etymology {{rfe}}
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (internet slang, informal) The proposition that every fictional character has an opposite-gender version.
rulemonger etymology rule + monger
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (derogatory) A stickler for rule.
rule OK
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (idiomatic, British, informal) To be popularly accepted, or supported by the general majority of people.
    • 2006, May 31, David Walker, Beware leadership by syringe. in Yet nationalism rules OK across most public management.
rules lawyer {{wikipedia}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (derogatory, slang) Someone who attempts to use knowledge of the arcane and technical rules governing a situation in a manner contrary to their intent to gain advantage.
related terms:
  • barracks lawyer
  • Often used in role-playing games such as .
rum {{wikipedia}} pronunciation
  • /ɹʌm/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
etymology 1 Perhaps shortened from rumbullion.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (uncountable) A distilled spirit derived from fermented cane sugar and molasses The Royal Navy used to issue a rum ration to sailors.
  2. (countable) A serving of rum Jake tossed down three rums.
  3. (countable) A kind or brand of rum Bundaberg is one of my favourite rums.
  4. (obsolete, slang) A queer or odd person or thing.
  5. (obsolete, slang) A country parson.
    • Jonathan Swift No company comes / But a rabble of tenants, and rusty dull rums.
etymology 2 Formerly rome, a slang word for good; possibly of Romany origin; compare rom.
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (obsolete) fine, excellent, valuable {{defdate}}
  2. (British, colloquial, dated) strange, peculiar {{defdate}} a rum idea; a rum fellow {{rfquotek}}
Synonyms: rummy
  • 1951, , , Google Books "Can't you see him?" "Well, I almost thought I did—for a moment. It's such a rum light."
  • 1976, , All Things Wise and Wonderful, page 346 "She's as 'appy as Larry, but she'll neither move nor eat. It's a rum 'un, isn't it?" It was very rum indeed.
  • MRU
rumble Alternative forms: rummle, rommle (dialectal) etymology From Middle English rumblen, romblen, rummelyn, frequentative form of romen, equivalent to rome + le. Cognate with Dutch rommelen, Low German rummeln, German rumpeln, Danish rumle. pronunciation
  • (British) /ˈɹʌmb(ə)l/
  • {{rhymes}}
interjection: {{en-interj}}
  1. An onomatopoeia describing a rumbling noise
noun: {{en-noun}} {{examples-right}}
  1. A low, heavy, continuous sound, such as that of thunder or a hungry stomach. The rumble from passing trucks made it hard to sleep at night.
  2. (slang) A street fight or brawl.
  3. A rotating cask or box in which small articles are smoothed or polished by friction against each other.
  4. (dated) A seat for servant, behind the body of a carriage.
    • Charles Dickens Kit, well wrapped, … was in the rumble behind.
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. To make a low, heavy, continuous sound. If I don't eat, my stomach will rumble. I could hear the thunder rumbling in the distance.
  2. To discover deceitful or underhanded behaviour. The police is going to rumble your hideout.
  3. To move while making a rumbling noise. The truck rumbled over the rough road.
  4. (slang) To fight; to brawl.
  5. (transitive) To cause to pass through a rumble, or polishing machine.
  6. (obsolete) To murmur; to ripple.
    • Spenser to rumble gently down with murmur soft
  • lumber
  • umbrel
rumbustious etymology From {{confix}}. Alternatively, possibly from an alteration of robustious.
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (informal, chiefly, British) boisterous and unruly
Synonyms: rambunctious (North American)
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang) An habitual drunkard; a stupid person.
    • King, Stephen. 1992. Gerald's game. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Viking, page 142. When a fellow comes into the kitchen to freshen his drink and finds the rumdum from up the road with one hand on his wife's behind and the other down the front of her --
  2. A cocktail made from rum, applejack and lime juice.
adjective: {{head}}
  1. (slang) Dulled or incapacitated by alcohol; unconscious; stupid. He was rumdum from beer and pills.
rum go etymology UK dialectal (chiefly ); rum + go. pronunciation
  • Idiomatically, the stress is on the first word when pronouncing this phrase.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang, idiomatic, British, Cockney) An odd affair; a surprising event; a confusing experience; a queer thing. Life's a rum go.
Synonyms: rum goo, rum start, rum 'un
  • 1836, , , , Google Books ‘Here’s rayther a rum go, sir,’ replied Sam. ‘What?’ inquired Mr. Pickwick. ‘This here, Sir,’ rejoined Sam. ‘I’m wery much afeerd, sir, that the properiator o’ this here coach is a playin’ some imperence vith us.’
  • 1883, , , , Google Books “Well, who's a better right?” growled the gamekeeper. “A pretty rum go if squire ain't to talk for Dr. Livesey, I should think.”
  • 1955, , , Google Books “There they are, Strawberry - Fledge, I should say. This is a rum go.”
  • 2003, Mary Poppins the musical 'Life's a rum go, Guv'nor, and that's the truth.'-Bert
ruminate {{was wotd}} etymology 1533, "to turn over in the mind," also "to chew cud" (1547), from Latin rūminātus, past participle of rūmināre, from rūmen (generally ruminis), of uncertain origin. pronunciation
  • /ˈruməneɪt/
  • {{audio}}
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (intransitive) To chew cud. (Said of ruminant.) Involves regurgitating partially digest food from the rumen. A camel will ruminate just as a cow will.
  2. (intransitive) To meditate or reflect. I didn't answer right away because I needed to ruminate first.
  3. (transitive) To meditate or ponder over; to muse on.
    • Shakespeare What I know / Is ruminated, plotted, and set down.
    • Dryden Mad with desire, she ruminates her sin.
Synonyms: See also , Or
related terms:
  • rumen
  • ruminant
  • rumination
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (botany) Having a hard albumen penetrated by irregular channels filled with softer matter, as the nutmeg and the seeds of the North American papaw. a ruminate endosperm
rumkin etymology Compare rummer, and see -kin.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (obsolete, humorous) A drink vessel.
{{Webster 1913}}
rumly etymology rum + ly
adverb: {{en-adv}}
  1. (UK, colloquial, dated) In a rum manner; odd, strange.
rummage sale
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. Informal sale of donate item, usually to fund the program of a church or charity.
rumness etymology rum + ness
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK, colloquial, dated) Oddness, strangeness.
rumorology etymology rumor + ology
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (rare, slang) rumormonger
rumortism etymology {{blend}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (humorous) A tendency to spread rumor or gossip.
rumortrage Alternative forms: rumourtrage etymology {{blend}}?
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (finance, colloquial) An increase in trading activity prompted by rumor of a takeover.
rumpalicious etymology rump + licious
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (slang) Having shapely and appealing buttocks.
    • 2001, Brett Johnson & Rebecca Louie, "Skin Flicks", Vibe, January 2001: The unmistakably rumpalicious video queen GLORIA VELEZ gets cheeky with JA RULE.
    • 2006, Mike Usinger, "Britney Spears gets mean as well as lean", The Georgia Straight, 15 November 2006: Over the past half-decade she’s French-kissed the world’s most famous MILF at the MTV Video Music Awards, had millions of repulsive-looking businessmen fantasize about joining the mile-high club with the video for “Toxic”, and done almost as much for babies who got back as the rump­alicious Jennifer Lopez.
    • 2011, Michael Sneed, "Turnabout? Cardinal George given communion — by Rev. Pfleger", Chicago Sun-Times, 29 November 2011: Pippa Middleton, future Brit Queen Kate Middleton’s sister with the famous derriere — has a new flame. The rumpalicious Middleton, who split with her banker beau three weeks ago, is now canoodling with a new man.
    • {{seemoreCites}}
Synonyms: bootylicious, bumtastic, callipygian, callipygous
rumpot etymology rum + pot
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang) A drunkard.
    • 1948, Iron Age (volume 162, page 119) But to get back to things revealing, Rudy turns on the sales promotion screen, announces a free one to the assorted rumpots present and we are hoisting away…
    • 1999, David Ireland, The chosen (page 47) The homeless men coming out of the hostel in Merino Street, rumpots and winos…
rump ranger etymology From the presumption that all gay men actively pursue and practice anal intercourse. Compare arse bandit.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang, derogatory) A homosexual man.
    • 1993, Bob Leuci, Double Edge, Signet (1993), ISBN 9780451173324, page 246: In general, Scott figured, what folks did with their peckers and rectums was their own business. Rump rangers were not a concern to him. Still, as a homicide cop he'd come across his share of gay killings, {{…}}
    • 1998, Dale Brown, The Tin Man, Bantam Books (1999), ISBN 0553580000, page 170: “I said, the faggot bar's down the street, rump ranger. Hit the fucking road.”
    • 2008, Rich Merritt, Code of Conduct, Kensington Books (2008), ISBN 9780758222749, page 301: “Before you told me, you know, that you're a rump ranger, I probably woulda said the same thing all the guys say. 'I don't want some faggot starin' at my ass in the shower.' {{…}}
Synonyms: See also .
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. {{rfdef}}
    • 2004, Marion Arnott, "Dollface", in Ed Gorman, ‎Martin H. Greenberg (editors), The World's Finest Mystery and Crime Stories, Fifth Annual Collection, page 238 It's a right rumpty-tumpty tune anyway.
particle: {{head}}
  1. A nonsense word, especially in simple or childish songs.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. Nonsense.
  2. (slang, euphemism, chiefly, UK) Sex.
related terms:
  • rumpty
rumpy-pumpy Alternative forms: rumpie-pumpie etymology From rump.Martin, Gary. ''The Phrase Finder'': "[ Rumpy-pumpy]".''Oxford Dictionaries''. "[ rumpy pumpy]". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2014. pronunciation
  • {{audio-IPA}}
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (colloquial, jocular) Sexual intercourse.
    • 1968, : Rump, Rumpie-pumpie, a jocular term for copulation.
    • 1986, Ben Elton & al., , "": —What think you, my lord, of... love? —You mean ‘rumpy-pumpy’.
Synonyms: See also
run {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology From Middle English ronnen, alteration (due to the past participle yronne) of Middle English rinnen, from Old English rinnan, iernan and Old Norse rinna, both from Proto-Germanic *rinnaną (compare also *rannijaną), from Proto-Indo-European *ren-. Cognate with Scots rin, Western Frisian rinne, Dutch rennen, German rennen, Danish rende, Swedish rinna, Icelandic renna. Cognate with Albanian rend. See random. pronunciation
  • /ɹʌn/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{audio}}
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (heading, vertebrates) To move swiftly.
    1. (intransitive) To move forward quickly upon two feet by alternately making a short jump off either foot. (Compare walk.) exampleRun, Sarah, run!
    2. (intransitive) To go at a fast pace, to move quickly. exampleThe horse ran the length of the track.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    3. (transitive) To cause to move quickly; to make move lightly. exampleEvery day I run my dog across the field and back.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    4. (transitive or intransitive) To compete in a race. exampleThe horse will run the Preakness next year.  {{nowrap}}
    5. (intransitive) Of fish, to migrate for spawning.
    6. (intransitive, soccer) To carry a football down the field.
    7. (transitive) To achieve or perform by running or as if by running. exampleThe horse ran a great race.  {{nowrap}}
    8. (intransitive) To flee away from a danger or towards help. exampleWhenever things get tough, she cuts and runs.  {{nowrap}}
    9. (transitive, juggling, colloquial) To juggle a pattern continuously, as opposed to starting and stopping quickly.
  2. (heading, fluids) To flow.
    1. (intransitive, figuratively) To move or spread quickly. exampleThere's a strange story running around the neighborhood.  {{nowrap}}
    2. (intransitive) Of a liquid, to flow. exampleThe river runs through the forest.  {{nowrap}}
    3. (intransitive) Of an object, to have a liquid flow from it. exampleYour nose is running.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    4. (transitive) To make a liquid flow; to make liquid flow from an object. exampleYou'll have to run the water a while before it gets hot.  {{nowrap}}
    5. (intransitive) To become liquid; to melt.
      • Joseph Addison (1672-1719) as wax dissolves, as ice begins to run
      • John Woodward (naturalist) (1665-1728) Sussex iron ores run freely in the fire.
    6. (intransitive) To leak or spread in an undesirable fashion; to bleed (especially used of dye or paint). exampleHe discovered during washing that the red rug ran on his white sheet, staining it pink.
    7. To fuse; to shape; to mould; to cast. exampleto run bullets
      • Henry Felton (1679-1740) The fairest diamonds are rough till they are polished, and the purest gold must be run and washed, and sifted in the ore.
    8. (figurative, transitive) To go through without stop, usually illegally. examplerun a red light or stop sign;  run a blockade
  3. (nautical, of a vessel) To sail before the wind, in distinction from reach or sailing close-hauled.
  4. (heading, social) To carry out an activity.
    1. (transitive) To control or manage, be in charge of. exampleMy uncle ran a corner store for forty years.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
      • {{quote-magazine}}
    2. (intransitive) To be a candidate in an election. exampleI have decided to run for governor of California.  {{nowrap}}
    3. (transitive) To make run in a race or an election. exampleHe ran his best horse in the Derby.  {{nowrap}}
    4. To exert continuous activity; to proceed. exampleto run through life;  to run in a circle
    5. (intransitive) To be present in one of the media. exampleThe story will run on the 6-o'clock news.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    6. (transitive) To print or broadcast in the media. examplerun a story;  run an ad
    7. (transitive) To transport someone or something. exampleCould you run me over to the store?  {{nowrap}}
    8. (transitive) To smuggle illegal goods. exampleto run guns;  to run rum
      • Jonathan Swift (1667–1745) Heavy impositions…are a strong temptation of running goods.
    9. (transitive, agriculture) To sort through a large volume of produce in quality control. exampleLooks like we're gonna have to run the tomatoes again.
  5. (heading) To extend or persist, statically or dynamically, through space or time.
    1. (intransitive) To extend in space or through a range (often with a measure phrase). exampleThe border runs for 3000 miles.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    2. (intransitive) To extend in time, to last, to continue (usually with a measure phrase). exampleThe sale will run for ten days.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    3. (transitive) To make something extend in space. exampleI need to run this wire along the wall.
    4. (intransitive) Of a machine, including computer program, to be operating or work normally. exampleMy car stopped running.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
    5. (transitive) To make a machine operate. exampleIt's full. You can run the dishwasher now.  {{nowrap}}
  6. (transitive) To execute or carry out a plan, procedure{{,}} or program. exampleThey ran twenty blood tests on me and they still don't know what's wrong.  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}  {{nowrap}}
  7. To pass or go quickly in thought or conversation. exampleto run from one subject to another
    • Joseph Addison (1672-1719) Virgil, in his first Georgic, has run into a set of precepts foreign to his subject.
  8. (copulative) To become different in a way mentioned (usually to become worse). exampleOur supplies are running low.  {{nowrap}}
    • Joseph Addison (1672-1719) Have I not cause to rave and beat my breast, to rend my heart with grief and run distracted?
    • 1968, Paul Simon, The Boxer (song) I was no more than a boy / In the company of strangers / In the quiet of the railway station / Running scared.
  9. (transitive) To cost a large amount of money. exampleBuying a new laptop will run you a thousand dollars.  {{nowrap}}
  10. (intransitive) Of stitches or stitched clothing, to unravel. exampleMy stocking is running.
  11. To pursue in thought; to carry in contemplation.
    • Robert South (1634–1716) to run the world back to its first original
    • Arthur Collier (1680-1732) I would gladly understand the formation of a soul, and run it up to its punctum saliens.
  12. To cause to enter; to thrust. exampleto run a sword into or through the body;  to run a nail into one's foot
    • Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) You run your head into the lion's mouth.
    • Charles Dickens (1812-1870) having run his fingers through his hair
    • {{RQ:Chrsty Atbgrfy}} There was also hairdressing: hairdressing, too, really was hairdressing in those times — no running a comb through it and that was that. It was curled, frizzed, waved, put in curlers overnight, waved with hot tongs;{{nb...}}.
  13. To drive or force; to cause, or permit, to be driven.
    • Bible, Acts of the Apostles xxvii. 41 They ran the ship aground.
    • John Ray (1627-1705) A talkative person runs himself upon great inconveniences by blabbing out his own or other's secrets.
    • John Locke (1632-1705) Others, accustomed to retired speculations, run natural philosophy into metaphysical notions.
  14. To cause to be drawn; to mark out; to indicate; to determine. exampleto run a line
  15. To encounter or incur (a danger or risk). exampleto run the risk of losing one's life
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) He runneth two dangers.
  16. To put at hazard; to venture; to risk.
    • Edward_Hyde,_1st_Earl_of_Clarendon (1609-1674) He would himself be in the Highlands to receive them, and run his fortune with them.
  17. To tease with sarcasms and ridicule.
  18. To sew (a seam) by passing the needle through material in a continuous line, generally taking a series of stitches on the needle at the same time.
  19. To control or have precedence in a card game. exampleEvery three or four hands he would run the table.
  20. To be in form thus, as a combination of words.
    • Robert Sanderson (theologian) (1587-1663) The king's ordinary style runneth, "Our sovereign lord the king."
    • 1922, Ben Travers , 5, [ A Cuckoo in the Nest] , “The departure was not unduly prolonged. In the road Mr. Love and the driver favoured the company with a brief chanty running: “Got it?—No, I ain't, 'old on,—Got it? Got it?—No, 'old on sir.””
  21. (archaic) To be popularly known; to be generally received.
    • Sir William Temple, 1st Baronet (1628–1699) Men gave them their own names, by which they run a great while in Rome.
    • Richard Knolles (1545-1610) Neither was he ignorant what report ran of himself.
  22. To have growth or development. exampleBoys and girls run up rapidly.
    • John Mortimer (1656?-1736) if the richness of the ground cause turnips to run to leaves
  23. To tend, as to an effect or consequence; to incline.
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.
    • Jonathan Swift (1667–1745) Temperate climates run into moderate governments.
  24. To have a legal course; to be attached; to continue in force, effect, or operation; to follow; to go in company. exampleCertain covenants run with the land.
    • Sir Josiah Child (1630-1699) Customs run only upon our goods imported or exported, and that but once for all; whereas interest runs as well upon our ships as goods, and must be yearly paid.
  25. (golf) To strike (the ball) in such a way as to cause it to run along the ground, as when approaching a hole.
Synonyms: go, pass, lead, extend, hunt, hunt down, track down, travel, speed, hurry
related terms:
  • gallop
  • move
  • walk
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. Act or instance of running, of moving rapidly using the feet. I just got back from my morning run.
    • {{quote-news }}
  2. Act or instance of hurry (to or from a place) (not necessarily by foot); dash or errand, trip.
    • 1759, N. Tindal, The Continuation of Mr Rapin's History of England, volume 21 (continuation volume 9), page 92: … and on the 18th of January this squadron put to sea. The first place of rendezvous was the boy of port St. Julian, upon the coast of Patagonia, and all accidents were provided against with admirable foresight. Their run to port St. Julian was dangerous …
    I need to make a run to the store.
  3. A pleasure trip. Let's go for a run in the car.
    • Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit And I think of giving her a run in London for a change.
  4. Flight, instance or period of flee.
    • 2006, Tsirk Susej, The Demonic Bible (ISBN 1411690737), page 41: During his run from the police, he claimed to have a metaphysical experience which can only be described as “having passed through an abyss.”
  5. Migration (of fish).
  6. A group of fish that migrate, or ascend a river for the purpose of spawning.
  7. (skiing, bobsledding) A single trip down a hill, as in skiing and bobsledding.
  8. A (regular) trip or route. The bus on the Cherry Street run is always crowded.
  9. The route taken while running or skiing. Which run did you do today?
  10. The distance sailed by a ship. a good run; a run of fifty miles
    • 1977, Star Wars (film) You've never heard of the Millennium Falcon? It's the ship that made the Kessel Run in less than twelve parsecs.
  11. A voyage. a run to China
  12. An enclosure for an animal; a track or path along which something can travel. He set up a rabbit run.
  13. (Australia, New Zealand) Rural landholding for farming, usually for running sheep, and operated by a runholder.
  14. State of being current; currency; popularity.
    • Addison It is impossible for detached papers to have a general run, or long continuance, if not diversified with humour.
  15. A continuous period (of time) marked by a trend; a period marked by a continuing trend. I’m having a run of bad luck. He went to Las Vegas and spent all his money over a three-day run.
    • Burke They who made their arrangements in the first run of misadventure … put a seal on their calamities.
    • {{quote-news }}
    1. A series of tries in a game that were successful.
  16. (card games) A sequence of cards in a suit in a card game.
  17. (music) A rapid passage in music, especially along a scale.
  18. A trial of an experiment. The data got lost, so I'll have to perform another run of the experiment.
  19. A flow of liquid; a leak. The constant run of water from the faucet annoys me. a run of must in wine-making the first run of sap in a maple orchard
  20. (US, dialect) A small creek or part thereof. The military campaign near that creek was known as "The battle of Bull Run".
  21. The amount of something made. The book’s initial press run will be 5,000 copies.
  22. A production quantity in a factory. Yesterday we did a run of 12,000 units.
  23. The length of a showing of a play, film, TV series, etc. The run of the show lasted two weeks, and we sold out every night. It is the last week of our French cinema run.
    • Macaulay A canting, mawkish play … had an immense run.
  24. A quick pace, faster than a walk. He broke into a run.
    1. (of horses) A fast gallop.
  25. A sudden series of demands on a bank or other financial institution, especially characterised by great withdrawals. Financial insecurity led to a run on the banks, as customers feared for the security of their savings.
  26. Any sudden large demand for something. There was a run on Christmas presents.
  27. The top of a step on a staircase, also called a tread, as opposed to the rise.
  28. The horizontal length of a set of stairs
  29. A standard or unexceptional group or category. He stood out from the usual run of applicants.
  30. (baseball) A score (point score) by a runner making it around all the base and over home plate.
  31. (cricket) A point score.
  32. (American football) A gain of a (specified) distance; a running play. … one of the greatest runs of all time.
    • 2003, Jack Seibold, Spartan Sports Encyclopedia, page 592: Aaron Roberts added an insurance touchdown on a one-yard run.
  33. {{rfc-sense}} Unrestricted use of an area. He can have the run of the house.
  34. A line of knit stitches that have unravelled, particularly in a nylon stocking. I have a run in my stocking.
  35. (nautical) The stern of the underwater body of a ship from where it begins to curve upward and inward.
  36. (construction) Horizontal dimension of a slope.
  37. (mining) The horizontal distance to which a drift may be carried, either by licence of the proprietor of a mine or by the nature of the formation; also, the direction which a vein of ore or other substance takes.
  38. A pair or set of millstone.
  39. (video games) A playthrough. This was my first successful run without losing any health.
  40. (slang) {{rfdef}}
    • 1964 : Heroin by And I'll tell ya, things aren't quite the same / When I'm rushing on my run.
  41. (golf) The movement communicated to a golf ball by running it.
  42. (golf) The distance a ball travels after touching the ground from a stroke.
Synonyms: (horizontal part of a step) tread, (unravelling) ladder (British), (computing) execute, start, See also
  • (horizontal part of a step) rise, riser
  • (horizontal distance of a set of stairs) rise
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. In a liquid state; melted or molten. Put some run butter on the vegetables.
    • 1921, L. W. Ferris, H. W. Redfield and W. R. North, The Volatile Acids and the Volatile Oxidizable Substances of Cream and Experimental Butter, in the Journal of Dairy Science, volume 4 (1921), page 522: Samples of the regular run butter were sealed in 1 pound tins and sent to Washington, where the butter was scored and examined.
  2. Cast in a mould.
    • 1735, Thomas Frankz, A tour through France, Flanders, and Germany: in a letter to Robert Savil, page 18: … the Sides are generally made of Holland's Tiles, or Plates of run Iron, ornamented variously as Fancy dictates, …
    • 1833, The Cabinet Cyclopaedia: A treatise on the progressive improvement and present state of the Manufactures in Metal, volume 2, Iron and Steel (printed in London), page 314: Vast quantities are cast in sand moulds, with that kind of run steel which is so largely used in the production of common table-knives and forks.
    • {{circa}} (Richard of Raindale, The Plan of my House vindicated, quoted by) T. T. B. in the Dwelling of Richard of Raindale, King of the Moors, published in The Mirror, number 966, 7 September 1839, page 153: For making tea I have a kettle, Besides a pan made of run metal; An old arm-chair, in which I sit well — The back is round.
  3. Exhausted; deplete (especially with "down" or "out").
  4. (of a, fish) Travelled, migrated; having made a migration or a spawning run.
    • 1889, Henry Cholmondeley-Pennell, Fishing: Salmon and Trout, fifth edition, page 185: The temperature of the water is consequently much higher than in either England or Scotland, and many newly run salmon will be found in early spring in the upper waters of Irish rivers where obstructions exist.
    • 1986, Arthur Oglesby, Fly fishing for salmon and sea trout, page 15: It may be very much a metallic appearance as opposed to the silver freshness of a recently run salmon.
    • 2005, Rod Sutterby, Malcolm Greenhalgh, Atlantic Salmon: An Illustrated Natural History, page 86: Thus, on almost any day of the year, a fresh-run salmon may be caught legally somewhere in the British Isles.
  • {{rank}}
  • URN, urn
{{catlangname}} {{catlangcode}}
runaholic etymology run + aholic
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (informal) One who is addicted to run.
    • 1987, Chris Pepper Shipman, I'll Meet You at the Finish!, Life Enhancement Publications (1987), page 65: One such woman complained, "My husband has become a 'runaholic'. He constantly talks about his running time, his equipment, people he has seen doing unusual things while he was running and on and on and on. {{…}}
    • 1991, Alvin Silverstein, Virginia Silverstein, & Robert Silverstein, The Addictions Handbook, Enslow Publishers (1991), ISBN 9780894902055, page 12: A "runaholic" might persist in running in spite of muscle aches, minor sprains, or more serious injuries; …
    • 2004, Eric Jerome Dickey, Naughty or Nice, New American Library (2004), ISBN 0451212983, page 21: First and last, I'm a runaholic. I started pounding the pavement right after my divorce.
run amok {{wikipedia}} Alternative forms: run amuck
verb: {{head}}
  1. (idiomatic) To go on a rampage; to be in an uncontrollable rage.
Synonyms: go postal
run around
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (idiomatic, intransitive) To be very busy doing many different things. exampleI don't want to run around all week getting everything ready for the holidays.
  2. (idiomatic, intransitive) To go from place to place.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, 7 , [ The Mirror and the Lamp] , ““A very welcome, kind, useful present, that means to the parish. By the way, Hopkins, let this go no further. We don't want the tale running round that a rich person has arrived. Churchill, my dear fellow, we have such greedy sharks, and wolves in lamb's clothing. […]””
  3. (rail transport, of a locomotive) To move from one end of the consist to the other, so as to pull the train in the opposite direction.
  4. (slang) To cheat; to be unfaithful to a romantic partner.
  5. (tennis, of a forehand or a backhand) To change one's position on the court to hit a forehand rather than a backhand, or visa-versa.
    • 2006, Greg Moran, Tennis Beyond Big Shots, page 71, ISBN 1932421041 He'd gotten into tremendous shape so that he could run around his backhand and avoid hitting it altogether. He even tried a left-handed forehand. That was how desperate he was.
Synonyms: (?) run about
Runglish {{wikipedia}} etymology {{blend}}
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (informal) A confused blend of Russian and English.
  2. (informal) An informal romanization of Russian, usually following English spelling rules.
Synonyms: Ruglish, Russlish, Nadsat (as used in 's "A Clockwork Orange")
run in
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. alternative spelling of run-in
verb: {{head}}
  1. (transitive, idiomatic, informal) To arrest. The guys who robbed the bank last week have finally been run in.
  2. (transitive, idiomatic, British) To drive a car carefully when it is new so the engine is not damaged in any way. I have to drive slowly for the first 1,000 miles to run the engine in.
  3. (rugby) To score (a try)
    • {{quote-news}}
  • The "arrest" sense is most commonly found in the passive form.
  • inrun, inurn
runner {{wikipedia}} etymology {{-er}}. pronunciation
  • (GenAm) /ˈɹʌnɚ/
  • (RP) /ˈɹʌnə/
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. Agent noun of run; somebody who runs.
    1. Somebody who moves at a fast pace. The first runner to cross the finish line wins the race.
    2. Somebody who controls or manages (e.g. a system).
      • 1998 June 12th, Daniel Jonathan Kirk (username), tipping competitions, in, Usenet: … at least half of which would be put into the pool for the winner, the rest kept for the runners of the system to cover costs and more than likely make a fair profit.
    3. (slang) An automobile The car salesman told me that the used Volvo was a nice little runner.
  2. (slang) A quick escape away from a scene. He did a runner after robbing the drugstore.
  3. A type of soft-soled shoe originally intended for runner, compare trainer; a sneaker.
  4. A part of an apparatus that moves quickly After the cycle completes, the runner travels back quickly to be in place for the next cycle.
  5. A mechanical part intended for wheels to run on or to slide against another surface.
  6. A strip of fabric used to decorate a table. The red runner makes the table so festive.
  7. A long, narrow carpet for a high traffic area such as a hall or stairs. How about we put down a clear runner in the front hall.
  8. (cricket) A player who run for a batsman who is too injure to run; he is dressed exactly as the injured batsman, and carries a bat.
  9. (baseball) A player who runs the bases. The runner was out at second.
  10. (Australian rules football) A person (from one or the other team) who runs out onto the field during the game to take verbal instructions from the coach to the players. A runner mustn't interfere with play, and may have to wear an identifying shirt to make clear his or her purpose on the field.
  11. (slang) A part of a cigarette that is burning unevenly.
  12. (botany) A long stolon sent out by a plant (such as strawberry), in order to root new plantlets.
  13. (climbing) A short sling with a karabiner on either end, used to link the climbing rope to a bolt or other protection such as a nut or friend.
  14. (poker slang) A competitor in a poker tournament.
  15. A restaurant employee responsible for taking food from the kitchen to the table.
  16. A leap food fish ({{taxlink}}) of Florida and the West Indies; the skipjack, shoemaker, or yellowtail.
  17. (sports slang) An employee of a sports agent who tries to recruit possible player client for the agent.
    • {{cite news}} This week hundreds of NFL agents gathered to hear an honorable man talk about a noble pipedream. It was a discussion about a significant step to end one of the cornerstones of corruption in college football: runners. Not the backs getting their 40 times tested at the scouting combine but the slimeball trolls who work on behalf of agents to help recruit — a generous word — football prospects by illegally giving them cash (or cars or money for family members or rent for a nice house) so the player then signs with the agent upon turning pro.
Synonyms: (climbing, a short sling) quick-draw, extender
runner-up Alternative forms: runner up
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. The person who finish second, or in any position after the first. Remember, if the winner can not complete the duties, the runner-up will take over.
  2. Second favorite.
running pronunciation
  • (UK) /ˈɹʌnɪŋ/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. Moving or advancing by running.
    1. Of a horse, having a running gait; not a trotter or pacer.
  2. successive; one following the other without break or intervention to be away two days running
  3. Flowing; easy; cursive. running handwriting
  4. Continuous; keeping along step by step. a running explanation
    • Milton a running conquest
    • Hare What are art and science if not a running commentary on Nature?
  5. (botany) Extending by a slender climbing or trailing stem. a running vine
  6. (medicine) Discharging pus. a running sore
adverb: {{en-adv}}
  1. (informal) consecutively; in a row Mom's strawberry jam won the blue ribbon at the Holland County Fair three years running.
noun: {{wikipedia}} {{en-noun}}
  1. The action of the verb to run. His running of the business leaves something to be desired.
  2. The activity of running as a form of exercise, as a sport, or for any other reason Running is good exercise.
  3. That which runs or flows; the quantity of a liquid which flows in a certain time or during a certain operation. the first running of a still
  4. The discharge from an ulcer or other sore.
verb: {{head}}
  1. present participle of run
  • {{rank}}
running dog etymology A calque of the cmn phrase 走狗 〈zǒu gǒu〉 (zǒugǒu, "running dog"; see also 狗腿子 and 狗腿), used as an insult by the governments of the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (走狗 〈zǒu gǒu〉, 주구, jugu) against those supportive of the great imperialist powers, variously including Russia and the United States.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (pejorative) A lackey; a lapdog; an unprincipled person who helps or flatters other, more powerful and often evil people.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (US, informal, dated) A felon or whitlow.
{{Webster 1913}}
runs pronunciation
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{head}}
  1. plural of run
  2. (the runs) (slang) Diarrhea/diarrhoea
Synonyms: (diarrh(o)ea): diarrhea/diarrhoea, the squits (slang), the trots (slang), the craps (slang)
verb: {{head}}
  1. en-third-person singular of run
  • urns
run through
verb: {{head}}
  1. (transitive, idiomatic) To summarise briefly Let me run through today's meeting for those who missed it.
    • {{quote-book }}
  2. (idiomatic, colloquial) To inform or educate someone, typically of a new concept or a concept particular to an organization or industry
    • {{quote-book }}
  3. (idiomatic) To repeat something. We will run through scene 2 until we get it right.
  4. (idiomatic) To use completely, in a short space of time. Usually money. I ran through my wages in two days. Now I've got to live on next to nothing till Friday!
  5. To go through hastily. to run through a book
  6. (idiomatic) To pervade, of a quality that is characteristic of a group, organisation, or system. Fear of foreigners runs through that country at all levels of its society.
  7. (idiomatic) To impale a person with a blade, usually a sword. Make just one move, and I'll run you through, sir, without hesitation.
    • {{quote-book }}
  8. Of a waterway, to flow through an area.
    • The Seine river runs through Paris.
  9. Used other than as an idiom: run, through
  • The verb and particle are inseparable except in sense 6. (impale with a sword)
Rupert {{wikipedia}} etymology A German name, brought to England by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in the seventeenth century.
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (mostly U.K.) A given name.
    • 2010 Joanne Harris, blueeyedboy, Doubleday, ISBN 9780385609500, page 99: A St Oswald's boy can pass off a name like Orlando, can make it sound like peppermint. Even Rupert sounds somehow cool when attached to a navy-blue St Oswald's blazer.
    • 2010 Maggie O'Farrell, The Hand That First Held Mine, Headline, ISBN 9780755308453, page 91: 'What about Rupert?' his mother says brightly. 'I've always loved the name Rupert and it's an old family name on my side.' 'Sounds like...a whatdyoucallit?' Ted's father says, folding up the newspaper and tossing it to the floor. 'What?' 'A...' Ted's father puts his hand to his brow ' know...a thing that children take to bed.! That's it. A teddy-bear.'
  2. A city in Idaho.
  3. An unincorporated community in Ohio.
  4. A town in Vermont.
  5. A town in West Virginia.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (derogatory, slang military) A junior army officer.
R Us etymology After Toys "R" Us, American toy-store chain, itself a phonetic rendering of "toys are us".
suffix: {{en-suffix}}
  1. (humorous) Suggesting a group of people or repository of products of the specified kind.
    • 1996, "Dan DePardo", Catching the Electronic Wave (The Article) "Way Long" (on Internet newsgroup "Geeks R Us" was a phrase that would often pop into my twisted little brain while I was initially learning to surf the 'Net.
    • 2002, "Joy in Virginia", Mar 13, Show Summary (on Internet newsgroup A board poster referred to Brandon as coming straight from the "Flaming Gays R Us" catalog!
    • 2005, "", What do I win? (on Internet newsgroup alt.sysadmin.recovery) Scenario: Someone wants to deliberately annoy you by phoning your number over and over again, or by putting your phone number on a Jerks R Us webforum.
rush {{wikipedia}} pronunciation
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
etymology 1 From Middle English rusch, risch, from Old English rysc, risc, from Proto-Germanic *ruskijō (compare Western Frisian risk, Dutch rus, dialectal Norwegian ryskje), from Proto-Indo-European *resg- ‘to plait, wattle’ (compare Irish rusg, Latin restis, Latvian rezgis ‘basketwork’, Albanian rrush, Serbo-Croatian rògoz, Ancient Greek ἄρριχος 〈árrichos〉, Persian رغزه 〈rgẖzh〉).
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. Any of several stiff aquatic or marsh plants of the genus Juncus, having hollow or pithy stems and small flowers.
  2. The stem of such plants used in making basket, mat, the seat of chair, etc.
  3. The merest trifle; a straw.
    • {{rfdate}} Arbuthnot John Bull's friendship is not worth a rush.
etymology 2 Perhaps from Middle English ruschen, russchen, from Old English hryscan, scLatinx, from Proto-Germanic *hruskijaną, *hruskaną, *hurskaną, from Proto-Indo-European *kors-. Cognate with Old High German hurscan, Old English horsc. More at hurry. {{rel-top}} An alternative etymology traces rush via Middle English rouschen from Old English *rūscian from Proto-Germanic *rūskōną, a variant (with formative k) of Proto-Germanic *rūsōną from Proto-Indo-European *(o)rewə-, making it akin to Old High German rosci, gml rūschen, Middle High German ruschen (German rauschen), Northern Frisian ruse, Middle Dutch ruuscen, Middle Dutch rusen (Dutch ruisen), Danish ruse, Swedish rusa. Compare Middle High German rūsch. Influenced by Middle English russhen from xno russer from Old French ruser. Alternatively, according to the OED, perhaps an adaptation of xno russher, russer, from Old French , ruser (although the connection of the forms with single -s- and double -ss- is dubious; also adopted in English ruse; French ruser), from an assumed vl *refusare and Latin refundere, although connection to the same gem root is also possible. More at rouse. {{rel-bottom}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A sudden forward motion.
  2. A surge. exampleA rush of business can be difficult to handle effectively for its unexpected volume.
  3. General haste. exampleMany errors were made in the rush to finish.
  4. A rapid, noisy flow. examplea rush of water;  a rush of footsteps
  5. (military) A sudden attack; an onslaught.
  6. (contact sports) The act of running at another player to block or disrupt play. examplea rush on the quarterback
  7. (American football, dated) A rusher; a lineman. the center rush, whose place is in the center of the rush line
  8. A sudden, brief exhilaration, for instance the pleasurable sensation produced by a stimulant. exampleThe rollercoaster gave me a rush.
  9. (US, figuratively) A regulated period of recruitment in fraternities and sororities. examplerush week
  10. (US, dated, college slang) A perfect recitation.
  11. (croquet) A roquet in which the object ball is sent to a particular location on the lawn.
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (transitive or intransitive) To hurry; to perform a task with great haste. examplerush one's dinner;   rush off an email response
    • Thomas Sprat (1635–1730) They…never think it to be a part of religion to rush into the office of princes and ministers.
    • {{quote-magazine}}
  2. (intransitive) To flow or move forward rapid or noisily. examplearmies rush to battle;   waters rush down a precipice.
    • William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Like to an entered tide, they all rush by.
    • 1892, James Yoxall , 5, [ The Lonely Pyramid] , “The desert storm was riding in its strength; the travellers lay beneath the mastery of the fell simoom. Whirling wreaths and columns of burning wind, rushed around and over them.”
  3. (intransitive, football) To dribble rapidly.
  4. (transitive or intransitive, contact sports) To run directly at another player in order to block or disrupt play.
  5. (transitive) To cause to move or act with unusual haste. exampleDon't rush your client or he may withdraw.
  6. (intransitive, military) To make a swift or sudden attack.
  7. (military) To swiftly attach to without warning.
  8. (transitive) To transport or carry quickly. exampleThe shuttle rushes passengers from the station to the airport.
  9. (transitive or intransitive, croquet) To roquet an object ball to a particular location on the lawn.
  10. (US, slang, dated) To recite (a lesson) or pass (an examination) without an error.
Synonyms: See also
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. Performed with, or requiring urgency or great haste, or done under pressure. a rush job
Used only before a noun.
rushaholic etymology rush + aholic
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (informal) A person who is constantly in a hurry.
    • 1992, Entrepreneur, Volume 20, page 218: We've become a nation of rushaholics, dashing from here to there, forever cramming one more meeting, activity or event into our already overcrowded schedules in the belief that we really can have and do it all.
    • 1997, Robert Gerzon, Finding Serenity in the Age of Anxiety, Bantam (1998), ISBN 055337978X, page 253: Modern rushaholics are always racing, always out of breath, always feeling behind schedule, always striving, but seldom managing to get ahead.
    • 1999, Mary Ellen Corcoran, Time Management: For People with No Time, William Waldron Publishers (1999), ISBN 9781893544185, page 102: You only have to look around to notice rushaholics whirling by at breakneck speed, whether it's the pizza promised in less than 30 minutes, or the one hour photo developing.
Rusky Alternative forms: Russki etymology From Russian русский 〈russkij〉 - (ethnic) Russian (male; noun and adjective). pronunciation
  • (UK) /ˈɹʌ
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK, mildly, derogatory, ethnic slur) a Russian person.
Russia {{wikipedia}} etymology {{wikipedia}} 1538, from Malayalam Russi. Ultimately from gkm Ρωσία 〈Rōsía〉 (whence also Russian Росси́я 〈Rossíâ〉) from an earlier (10th century) ethnonym Ῥῶς 〈Rhō̂s〉 (Arabic روس 〈rws〉, orv Русь 〈Rusʹ〉). pronunciation
  • (UK) /ˈɹʌ.ʃə/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{hyphenation}}
  • {{rhymes}}
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. A country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The Country extends from the Gulf of Finland to the Pacific Ocean, and was part of the USSR from 1922 to 1991. Co-official name - Russian Federation, formerly the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), Capital and largest city Moscow
  2. (historical, informal) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a very common name, although more formally Russia, the RSFSR, was one of several constituent republics of the USSR).
  3. (historical) The Russian Empire.
  4. (historical, dated) Rus, the medieval East Slavic state.
  5. (dated, countable) Any of several East Slavic states descended from the Rus, typically including Russia (Great Russia), Belarus (White Russia) and Ukraine (Little Russia or Kievan Russia).
    • 1842, George Eliot, "Letter to Cara Bray", Selections from George Eliot's letters, page 24: Or rather if I be attaining a better autocratship than that of the Emperor of all the Russias – the empire over self.
    • 1914, Russia and the Russian People Then there is White Russia and Red Russia, Great Russia and Little Russia, Russia of the Frozen North and Russia of the Far East — a Russia equally dangerous to every one of her neighbours …
Synonyms: Russian Federation
Russian {{wikipedia}} {{interwiktionary}} Alternative forms: (abbreviation): Ru. etymology Malayalam (11th century) Russianus, the adjective of Russia, a Latinization of the orv Русь 〈Rusʹ〉. Attested in English (both as a noun and as an adjective) from the 16th century. pronunciation
  • /ˈrʌʃ(ə)n/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A person from Russia.
  2. An ethnic Russian: a member of the East Slavic ethnic group which is native to, and constitutes the majority of the population of, Russia.
  3. A domestic cat breed.
  4. A cat of this breed.
  5. (juggling, rare in the singular) A type of juggling ball with a hard outer shell, filled with salt, sand or another similar substance.
related terms:
  • Russify
  • Russo-
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. The Russian language.
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. Of or pertaining to Russia.
  2. Of or pertaining to the Russian language.
  3. (dated) Of or pertaining to Rus.
noun: {{en-plural noun}}
  1. (informal) Russian
  • issuers
  • sursies
Russki Alternative forms: Rusky etymology 1858, Russian русский 〈russkij〉. pronunciation
  • (UK) /ˈɹʌ
  • {{rhymes}}
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (usually, derogatory, colloquial) Russian.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (usually, derogatory, colloquial, ethnic slur) Russian.
Synonyms: katsap (Ukrainian context)
Rust Belt {{wikipedia}} Alternative forms: rustbelt, Rustbelt, rust belt, rust-belt
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (informal) A region straddling the Northeastern and East North Central United States that has undergone economic decline and population loss due to the shrinking of its once powerful industrial sector.
noun : {{en-noun}}
  1. An industrial region in decline.
    • 1991, D. C. B. Lieven, The Soviet Crisis, Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, p 26: The government in Kiev would also have to cope with Europe’s greatest swathe of rust-belt mines and industries.
rustbucket Alternative forms: rust-bucket etymology rust + bucket
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang) An old, neglected vehicle, usually a car, a freighter, or a truck.
rustler etymology {{-er}}
noun: {{wikipedia}} {{en-noun}}
  1. One who rustle; a cattle thief.
  2. A bovine animal that can care for itself in any circumstances.
  3. (US, slang, Western US, dated) An alert, energetic, driving person.
Synonyms: abactor
Rusto etymology Shortening.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (graffiti slang) Rust-Oleum spraypaint
    • 2008, Juxtapoz (issues 90-92) Rusto is the kind of paint that many writers steal and steal caps for and go bombing.
    • 2011, Adam Melnyk, Visual Orgasm: The Early Years of Canadian Graffiti (page 112) Rusto is thick, so for certain things it is good, like metal.
rusty trombone
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (vulgar) The act of performing anilingus whilst reaching in between the legs to administer manual stimulation of the penis.
Ruthanasia etymology {{blend}}, in reference to the National Party's Minister of Finance, Ruth Richardson.
noun: {{en-noun}} {{wikipedia}}
  1. (slang, pejorative, NZ) The period of free-market economic reform conducted during the first term of the fourth National government in New Zealand, from 1990 to 1993.
    • 1991, New statesman society (volume 4) Rogernomics has been succeeded by Richardson's Ruthanasia.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (obsolete, derogatory) An old crafty fox or beguiler. {{rfquotek}}
{{Webster 1913}}
r-word Alternative forms: R-word
noun: {{wikipedia}} {{en-noun}}
  1. (euphemistic) The word retard regarded as a vulgar or taboo word.
    • 2003, James Meadours, "Tell the President Stop using that "R" word, Mouth 14.3 (Sep/Oct 2003) p34. I recently spoke supporting a new name for the President's Committee on Mental Retardation. I suggested it be changed to "President's Committee for People with Developmental Disabilities."
    • 2008, "The r-word", National Post (Don Mills, Ontario) 13 Aug 2008, pA.12. The Tropic Thunder premiere presented a particularly strong opportunity for advocacy groups to make further progress on this front, because the R-word has played a major role in advance viral marketing for the prospective big-budget blockbuster....
    • 2010, Christopher M. Fairman, "Saying it is hurtful. Banning it is worse.", The Washington Post, 2010-02-14 online The latest battle over the R-word kicked into high gear with a Jan. 26 Wall Street Journal report that last summer White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel blasted liberal activists unhappy with the pace of health-care reform, deriding their strategies as "[expletive] retarded."
    • 2010, "Jennifer Aniston slammed for using 'retard' word in interview", Asian News International (New Delhi) 20 Aug 2010 "When people continue to use the 'R' word, it's hurtful," Seckler added.
  2. (euphemistic) The word redskin or redskins (including as a team name) regarded as a vulgar or taboo word.
    • 1992, Clarence Page, "Block that trademarked racial epithet", The Orlando Sentinel, 09/23/1992, p A9 For years, Native American Indian groups and a wide variety of knee-jerk liberal sympathizers, including me, your humble scrivener, have pointed fingers of shame, shame, shame at the R-word team.
    • 2001, Bruce Stapleton, Redskins: Racial Slur Or Symbol of Success?, iUniverse, p 49 “The r-word is no more acceptable to American Indians than the n-word is to blacks,” one woman stated succinctly in a recent Post letter to the editor ....
    • 2008, Kathleen Eagle, Mystic Horseman, page 272: It's better than the R word, huh? Redskin? Better than prairie nigger. That's a real beaut. It's even better than Native American.
  3. (euphemistic) The word rape regarded as a vulgar or taboo word.
    • 1994, Harvey Porlock, "On the Critical List; Books", The Times (London (UK)) 17 Apr 1994, "Updike can use the `R' word" (rape, he meant) "to describe the love-making (sic) of the two Brazilians and get away with it."
    • 2001, Noelle Howie, "By any other name", Ms (11) 2 (Feb/Mar 2001) pp. 86–9. As the viewer of any after-school special can tell you, women shy away from the R word because they blame themselves.
    • 2004, Eric Schmitt, "Army Retraining Soldiers to Meet Its Shifting Needs", New York Times 11 Mar 2004, p A22. "You don't ask a victim 'How's it going?' and you don't use the R word with them."
    • 2009, "The Indian rape trick", The Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 23 Nov 2009. Of late though, the R-word has acquired a dark new meaning with guys leaping out of bushes onto hapless maidens.
  4. (humorous) Any word beginning with r that is not normally taboo but is considered (often humorously) to be so in the given context.
    • 1993, Sam Roberts, "Mayoral Campaign Tests The Loyalty of Democrats", The New York Times, page B2 Neither Mayor David N. Dinkins nor Mr. Cuomo, though, has been reluctant to invoke the symbolism of another R-word: Republican.
    • 1994, Charlie Nobles, "Polonia Gives Boggs a New Dimension", The New York Times, 1994-02-25, page B11 In the second year of a three-year contract, Boggs will be 36 on June 15, but he's not ready to consider the R word—retirement.
    • 1996, Scott Bradfield, Animal Planet quoted in NYT book review Winter came early that year, and the animals began hearing a lot of "R" words they couldn't pronounce. Words like "recession," "redundancy" and "rationalization."
    • 2007, Paul J. Lim, "The ‘R’ Word Doesn’t Have to Be So Scary", The New York Times, 2007-12-09 online For investors, there are few things as scary as the “R” word. That’s because, historically, recessions have often wreaked havoc on stock portfolios.
    • 2009, Greg Bishop, "No Tears This Time: Jets quarterback cites biceps injury", The New York Times, 2009-02-12, page B13 But never say never, friends make sure to add, knowing that Favre has tossed around the R-word frequently the last three seasons.
    • 2009, Clyde Haberman, "Democracy in New York: An Accidental Governor? Try Government: NYC", The New York Times, 2009-07-14, page A23 When he spoke last year at the convention of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Gov. David A. Paterson complained about being a victim of racism. He didn't actually use the r-word.
    • 2013, Harvey Araton, "Federer Deserves Ovation Tour, But Not Just Yet", The New York Times, 2013-08-26 online The R word no doubt still sounds profane to Roger Federer, but I think I am speaking for most fans of the sport when I say: whenever the time does come for him to exit the stage, some serious advance notice would be appreciated.
    • 2013, Annie Correal, "New York Today: Round 2", The New York Times, 2013-10-22 online For his part, Mr. de Blasio will probably just keep using the R-word. ¶ “He seems to think the Republican brand is so damaged here in New York City that repeating that over and over is enough to prevent Lhota from picking up support,” Mr. Paulson said.
rye bread
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A bread made partly or entirely with rye flour.
s/ etymology This comes from the command s, originally in but found in Perl, to replace one string with another. Although the command does not require slashes (other punctuation can be used as delimiters) in this informal use (i.e., outside of scripting) slashes are virtually universally used. In the original command, a trailing g means that the change in strings should be effected every time the first string appears (not just the first time it appears); this g is often used in this informal verb also, as described in the usage note below.
verb: {{head}} (imperative only)
  1. (informal or even humorous) Replace the following string with the one that appears after it. I hate you, you idiot! Erm, s/hate/love/ and s/idiot/lovable fellow/.
  • As in the example sentences, the string to be replaced and the string replacing it are surrounded by slashes. Often, the second string is followed by a g; see etymology, above.
  • {{seeCites}}
s/he Alternative forms: (s)he, he/she
pronoun: {{en-pron}}
  1. he or she
This term is used as a gender-neutral third person singular pronoun. One common use is on paper forms. Synonyms: (informal) they, (formal) he, (arbitrarily) she
  • esh, he's, HSE
abbreviation: {{rfc-header}} {{head}}
  1. (informal) significant other
  2. (chiefly, grammar and lexicography) someone
  • O's, OS, o's, os
S.O.L. Alternative forms: s.o.l.
{{initialism-old}}: {{en-adj}}
  1. (North America, vulgar slang) shit out of luck, meaning that luck has run out; an impasse has been reached (figuratively or literally)
  • LOS
interjection: {{en-interj}}
  1. (informal) form of contraction
  • KO's, KOS, Kos, OKs
sac pronunciation
  • /sæk/
  • {{rhymes}}
  • {{homophones}}
etymology 1 From French sac.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A bag or pouch inside a plant or animal that typically contains a fluid.
etymology 2 Abbreviation of sacrifice.
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. {{senseid}}(transitive, informal, games) To sacrifice. Kasparov sacked his queen early on in the game to gain a positional advantage against Kramnik. I kept saccing monsters at the altar until I was rewarded with a new weapon.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. {{senseid}}(transitive, informal, games) A sacrifice. Kasparov's queen sac early in the game gained him a positional advantage against Kramnik.
etymology 3 See sake, soc.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK, legal, obsolete) The privilege, formerly enjoyed by the lord of a manor, of holding court, trying cause, and imposing fine. {{rfquotek}}
sac bunt
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (colloquial, baseball) A sacrifice bunt.
etymology 1 From Malayalam saccharum + -ine. pronunciation
  • (UK) /ˈsækəɹɪn/
  • {{audio}}
  • Homophones: saccharin
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. Of or relating to sugar.
  2. (pejorative) Excessively sweet in action or disposition; syrupy.
  3. Sentimental or romantic to the point of ridiculousness.
Synonyms: (excessively sweet) precious, syrupy, twee
etymology 2 From saccharin + ine
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. Of or relating to saccharin.
sack pronunciation
  • (UK) /sæk/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
  • {{homophones}}
etymology 1 From Middle English sak, from Old English sacc and Old English sæcc; both from Proto-Germanic *sakkuz, from Latin saccus, from Ancient Greek σάκκος 〈sákkos〉, from Phoenician, Ancient Ancient Egyptian 𓆷𓈎𓄜 〈𓆷𓈎𓄜〉. Cognate with Dutch zak, German Sack, Swedish säck, Hebrew שַׂק 〈şâq〉, Akkadian 𒆭𒊓 〈𒆭𒊓〉. {{rel-top}}
  • “Pillage” senses from the use of sacks in carrying off plunder. From Middle French sac, shortened from the phrase mettre à sac (“put it in a bag”), a military command to pillage; also parallel meaning with Italian sacco, from Malayalam saccō. From vl saccare, from saccus. See also ransack. American football “tackle” sense from this “plunder, conquer” root.
  • “Removal from employment” senses attested since 1825; the original formula was “to give (someone) the sack”, likely from the notion of a worker going off with his tools in a sack, or being given such a sack for his personal belongings as part of an expedient severance. Idiom exists earlier in French (on luy a donné son sac, 17c.) and Middle Dutch (iemand den zak geven). English verb in this sense recorded from 1841. Current verb, to sack (“to fire”) carries influence from the forceful nature of “plunder, tackle” verb senses.
  • Slang meaning “bunk, bed” is attested since 1825, originally nautical, likely in reference to sleeping bag. The verb meaning “go to bed” is recorded from 1946.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A bag; especially a large bag of strong, coarse material for storage and handling of various commodities, such as potatoes, coal, coffee; or, a bag with handles used at a supermarket, a grocery sack; or, a small bag for small items, a satchel.
  2. The amount a sack holds; also, an archaic or historical measure of varying capacity, depending on commodity type and according to local usage; an old English measure of weight, usually of wool, equal to 13 stone (182 pounds), or in other sources, 26 stone (364 pounds).
    • The American sack of salt is 215 pounds; the sack of wheat, two bushels. — McElrath.
    • 1843, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. 27, page 202 Seven pounds make a clove, 2 cloves a stone, 2 stone a tod, 6 1/2 tods a wey, 2 weys a sack, 12 sacks a last. [...] It is to be observed here that a sack is 13 tods, and a tod 28 pounds, so that the sack is 364 pounds.
    • 1882, , A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, Volume 4, page 209 Generally, however, the stone or petra, almost always of 14 lbs., is used, the tod of 28 lbs., and the sack of thirteen stone.
  3. (uncountable) The plunder and pillaging of a captured town or city. The sack of Rome.
  4. (uncountable) Loot or booty obtained by pillage.
  5. (American football) A successful tackle of the quarterback. See verb sense3 below.
  6. (baseball) One of the square bases anchored at first base, second base, or third base. He twisted his ankle sliding into the sack at second.
  7. (informal) Dismissal from employment, or discharge from a position, usually as give (someone) the sack or get the sack. See verb sense4 below. The boss is gonna give her the sack today. He got the sack for being late all the time.
  8. (colloquial, US) Bed; usually as hit the sack or in the sack. See also sack out.
  9. (dated) (also sacque) A kind of loose-fitting gown or dress with sleeves which hangs from the shoulder, such as a gown with a or , fashionable in the late 17th to 18th century; or, formerly, a loose-fitting hip-length jacket, cloak or cape.
    • 1749, , , , Google Books Molly, therefore, having dressed herself out in this sack, with a new laced cap, and some other ornaments which Tom had given her, repairs to church with her fan in her hand the very next Sunday.
  10. (dated) A sack coat; a kind of coat worn by men, and extending from top to bottom without a cross seam.
  11. (vulgar, slang) The scrotum. He got passed the ball, but it hit him in the sack.
Synonyms: (bag) bag, tote, poke (obsolete), (informal: dismissal from employment) the axe, pink slip, the boot, the chop, the elbow, one's cards, the old heave-ho, (colloquial: bed) hay, rack, (vulgar slang: scrotum) ballsack, ball sack, nutsack
  • (bag) bindle
related terms: {{top2}}
  • sac
  • sachet
  • satchel
  • haversack
  • knapsack
  • rucksack
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. To put in a sack or sacks. Help me sack the groceries.
    • 1903, , , , The gold was sacked in moose-hide bags, fifty pounds to the bag …
  2. To bear or carry in a sack upon the back or the shoulders.
  3. To plunder or pillage, especially after capture; to obtain spoils of war from. The barbarians sacked Rome.
    • 1898, , translated by , , , It [a lyre] was part of the spoils which he had taken when he sacked the city of Eetion …
  4. (American football) To tackle, usually to tackle the offensive quarterback behind the line of scrimmage before he is able to throw a pass.
    • 1995, John Crumpacker and Gwen Knapp, "Sack-happy defensive line stuns Dolphins",, November 21, On third down, the rejuvenated Rickey Jackson stormed in over All-Pro left tackle Richmond Webb to sack Marino yet again for a 2-yard loss.
  5. (informal) To discharge from a job or position; to fire. He was sacked last September.
    • 1999, "Russian media mogul dismisses Yeltsin's bid to sack him",, March 5, … Boris Berezovsky on Friday dismissed President Boris Yeltsin's move to sack him from his post as executive secretary of the Commonwealth of Independent States, …
  6. (colloquial) In the phrase sack out, to fall asleep. See also hit the sack. The kids all sacked out before 9:00 on New Year’s Eve.
Synonyms: (plunder, pillage) loot, ransack, (to remove someone from a job) can, dismiss, fire, lay off, let go, terminate, make redundant, give the axe, give the boot, give (someone) their cards, give the chop, give the elbow, give the old heave-ho, See also: , (slang: to hit in the groin) rack
etymology 2 From earlier (wyne) seck, from Middle French (vin) sec, from Latin siccus
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (dated) A variety of light-colored dry wine from Spain or the Canary Islands; also, any strong white wine from southern Europe; sherry.
    • {{RQ:Shakespeare Shrew}} Will't please your lordship drink a cup of sack? ...I ne'er drank sack in my life...
    • {{RQ:Shakespeare Henry 4-1}} Thou art so fat-witted, with drinking of old sack...let a cup of sack be my poison...Wherein is he good, but to taste sack and drink it?
    • 1610, , by , act 2 scene 2 How didst thou 'scape? How cam'st thou hither? swear / by this bottle how thou cam'st hither—I escaped upon / a butt of sack, which the sailors heaved overboard, by / this bottle! [...]
etymology 3
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. alternative spelling of sac
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. alternative spelling of sac
  • acks
  • cask
sack of flesh
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (derogatory) Somebody who barely qualifies as human, if at all.
sacrifice {{wikipedia}} etymology From Old French sacrifice, from Latin sacrificium, from sacrificō, from sacer, + faciō. Displaced Old English ansegdniss. pronunciation
  • /ˈsækɹɪfaɪs/
  • {{audio}}
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (transitive) To offer (something) as a gift to a deity.
  2. (transitive) To give away (something valuable) to get at least a possibility to gain something else of value (such as self-respect, trust, love, freedom, prosperity), or to avoid an even greater loss.
    • “Don’t you break my heart / ’Cause I sacrifice to make you happy.” - From the song Baby Don’t You Do It by Marvin Gaye
    • “God sacrificed His only-begotten Son, so that all people might have eternal life.” (a paraphrase of John 3:16).
    • Prior Condemned to sacrifice his childish years / To babbling ignorance, and to empty fears.
    • G. Eliot The Baronet had sacrificed a large sum … for the sake of … making this boy his heir.
  3. (transitive) To trade (a value of higher worth) for one of lesser worth in order to gain something else valued more such as an ally or business relationship or to avoid an even greater loss; to sell without profit to gain something other than money.
    • Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged If you exchange a penny for a dollar, it is not a sacrifice; if you exchange a dollar for a penny, it is.
  4. (transitive, chess) To intentionally give up (a piece) in order to improve one’s position on the board.
  5. (transitive, baseball) To advance (a runner on base) by batting the ball so it can be caught or fielded, placing the batter out, but with insufficient time to put the runner out.
  6. (dated, tradesmen's slang) To sell at a price less than the cost or actual value.
  7. To destroy; to kill. {{rfquotek}}
Synonyms: (sell without profit) sell at a loss
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. The offering of anything to a god; consecratory rite.
    • Milton Great pomp, and sacrifice, and praises loud, / To Dagon.
  2. Destruction or surrender of anything for the sake of something else; devotion of some desirable object in behalf of a higher object, or to a claim deemed more pressing. the sacrifice of one's spare time in order to volunteer
  3. Something sacrificed.
    • Milton Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood / Of human sacrifice.
  4. (baseball) A play in which the batter is intentionally out in order that runner can advance around the bases.
  5. A loss of profit.
  6. (slang, dated) A sale at a price less than the cost or the actual value.
sacrilicious etymology {{blend}}
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (slang, humorous) producing pleasure through the violation of taboos
    • {{quote-video }}
    • {{quote-book }}
    • {{quote-book }}
    • {{quote-book }}
    • {{seemorecites}}
sad etymology From Middle English sad, from Old English sæd, from Proto-Germanic *sadaz, from Proto-Indo-European *seh₂- 〈*seh₂-〉. Cognate with Western Frisian sêd, Dutch zat, German satt, Danish sat, Norwegian sad, Gothic 𐍃𐌰𐌸𐍃 〈𐍃𐌰𐌸𐍃〉, and through Indo-European, with Latin satur. Related to sate. pronunciation
  • /sæd/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (obsolete) Sated, having had one's fill; satisfied, weary.
  2. (obsolete) Steadfast, valiant.
    • {{RQ:Mlry MrtArthr1}}, Book V: And thus they strekyn forth into the stremys, many sadde hunderthes.
  3. (obsolete) Dignified, serious, grave.
    • {{RQ:Spenser Faerie Queene}}, II.xi: Vprose Sir Guyon, in bright armour clad, / And to his purposd iourney him prepar'd: / With him the Palmer eke in habit sad, / Him selfe addrest to that aduenture hard…
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) ripe and sad courage
    • John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners (1467-1533) which treaty was wisely handled by sad and discrete counsel of both parties
  4. (obsolete) Naughty; troublesome; wicked.
    • Isaac Taylor (1787–1865) Sad tipsy fellows, both of them.
  5. (heading) Emotionally negative.
    1. Of colours: dark, deep; later, sombre, dull.
      • 1646, Thomas Browne, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, II.5: this is either used crude, and called Sulphur Vive, and is of a sadder colour; or after depuration, such as we have in magdeleons of rolls, of a lighter yellow.
      • Izaak Walton (c.1594-1683) sad-coloured clothes
      • John Mortimer (1656?-1736) Woad, or wade, is used by the dyers to lay the foundation of all sad colours.
    2. Feeling sorrow; sorrowful, mournful. exampleShe gets sad when he's away.
      • William Shakespeare (c.1564–1616) First were we sad, fearing you would not come; / Now sadder, that you come so unprovided.
      • John Milton (1608-1674) The angelic guards ascended, mute and sad.
    3. Appearing sorrowful. exampleThe puppy had a sad little face.
    4. Causing sorrow; lamentable. exampleIt's a sad fact that most rapes go unreported.
    5. Poor in quality, bad; shameful, deplorable; later, regrettable, poor. exampleThat's the saddest-looking pickup truck I've ever seen.
      • 1819, Lord Byron, Don Juan (Byron), II.127: Heaven knows what cash he got, or blood he spilt, / A sad old fellow was he, if you please{{nb...}}.
  6. (slang) Unfashionable; socially inadequate or undesirable. exampleI can't believe you use drugs; you're so sad!
  7. (dialect) Soggy (to refer to pastries).
  8. (obsolete) Heavy; weighty; ponderous; close; hard. sad bread
    • Edmund Spenser (c.1552–1599) his hand, more sad than lump of lead
    • John Mortimer (1656?-1736) Chalky lands are naturally cold and sad.
Synonyms: (feeling mentally uncomfortable) discomforted, distressed, uncomfortable, unhappy, (low in spirits) depressed, down in the dumps, glum, melancholy, (moving, full of feeling) poignant, touching, (causing sorrow) lamentable, (poor in quality) pitiful, sorry, See also , See also
  • happy
  • cheerful
  • gleeful, upbeat
  • decent
related terms:
  • sadden
  • ads
  • ASD
  • SDA
sad ass Alternative forms: sadass
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang, derogatory) One who has unfashionable interests or obsessions. I'm gonna play that game when I get home! What a sad ass.
sadcase etymology sad + case
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK, slang) A pathetic, unfashionable or socially inept person; a nerd; a saddo.
  • {{seeCites}}
sad case
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK, slang, pejorative) a tragically unfashionable or uncool person.
saddish etymology sad + ish
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (informal) Somewhat sad.
etymology 1 saddle + back
noun: {{wikipedia}} {{en-noun}}
  1. A saddle-shaped ridge forming a shallow pass between two peak.
  2. A roof in the same shape, having a gable at each end.
  3. Any of various creature having a saddle-shaped marking on the back.
  4. (geology) An anticlinal.
  5. (UK) the great black-backed gull.
  6. (NZ) a bird Philesturnus carunculatis.
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. saddle-backed
adverb: {{en-adv}}
  1. saddle-backed
etymology 2 From Saddleback Church of Lake Forest, California. Coined in a contest held by columnist Dan Savage, in response to its support for California Proposition 8.
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (slang) To engage in anal sex with the intention of preserving one's virginity (chiefly, by Christian teenagers)
    • {{seecites}}
  • buttfuck
  • take it up the ass/take it up the arse
saddo pronunciation
  • {{rhymes}}
etymology sad + o
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (informal, derogatory) A pathetic or socially inept person; a nerd.
Synonyms: See also
  • dados
sadfuck etymology sad + fuck
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang, vulgar, derogatory) A contemptible or pathetic person; a loser.
    • 1995, "Count Zero", !CONSERVANAZIS (o 2/2 (on Internet newsgroup alt.gothic) listen, sadfuck, your message gives your age as about 12 years old. Justifying a torrent of rather pathetic abuse by a supposedly politically correct standpoint is not only cliched but damages the image of the people you purportedly represent.
    • 2006, Jo-Ann Goodwin, Sweet gum Perverts, sadfucks, tourists, minor celebs, sports stars, lawyers, politicians, out-of-town business men and nobodies who'd saved up for six months, SweetHearts had the lot - drunken boys of all ages and professions.
saditty pronunciation
  • sa•dit•ty /sah-DIT-tee/
Alternative forms: hasadity, saddity, sadiddy, seditty, seddity, siditty
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. (US, slang, chiefly, AAVE) Acting snobbish, arrogant, or superior; uppity; perceived to be trying to associate with a higher social class.
sad panda etymology From Sexual Harassment Panda, a 1999 episode of the animated comedy series South Park.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (informal) An unhappy or disappointed person.
sadster etymology sad + ster
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (UK, slang) A socially inadequate or undesirable person; a saddo or loser.
    • 1995, Autocar (volume 202, page 48) You see, when it comes to buying a car, people who'd haggle with the milkman turn into sadsters with 'empty my wallet' writ large on their foreheads.
    • 1999, "nice bloke", Decent, witty, sober, passionate man available (on newsgroup uk.local.essex) I'm not a friendless sadster, just looking for some good company & see what gives from there!
safe {{wikipedia}} etymology From Middle English safe, saf, saaf, from Old French sauf, saulf, salf, from Latin salvus, from Proto-Indo-European *salw-, *solw-, *slōw-. pronunciation
  • /seɪf/
  • {{audio}}
  • {{rhymes}}
adjective: {{en-adj}}
  1. Not in danger; free from harm's reach. exampleYou’ll be safe here.
  2. Free from risk; harmless, riskless. exampleIt’s safe to eat this.
  3. Providing protection from danger; providing shelter. exampleWe have to find a safe spot, where we can hide out until this is over.
  4. (baseball) When a batter successfully reaches first base, or when a baserunner successfully advances to the next base or returns to the base he last occupied; not out. exampleThe pitcher attempted to pick off the runner at first, but he was safe.
  5. Properly secured; secure. exampleThe documents are safe.
  6. (used after a noun, often, forming a compound) Not in danger from the specified source of harm. exampledishwasher safe;  dishwasher-safe
  7. (UK, slang) Great, cool, awesome, respectable; a term of approbation.
  8. Reliable.
  9. Cautious.
Synonyms: harmless, riskless, secure, (cool) wicked, cool, awesome, (reliable) trustworthy
antonyms: {{checksense}}
  • unsafe
  • (providing protection from danger; providing shelter) dangerous
  • (providing protection from danger; providing shelter) harmful
  • insecure
  • (not in danger from the specified source of harm) dishwasher-safe
  • (properly secured; secure) binary-safe
  • (properly secured; secure) type-safe, typesafe
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A box, usually made of metal, in which valuables can be locked for safekeeping.
  2. (slang) A condom.
    • 1999, Rita Ciresi, Pink Slip, Delta (1999), ISBN 0385323638, page 328: She'd better have an arsenal of Trojans in her purse just in case he wasn't carrying a safe in his back pocket.
  3. (dated) A ventilated or refrigerated chest or closet for securing provisions from noxious animals or insects.
Synonyms: (box for storing valuables) coffer, lockbox, strongbox, (condom) see also .
  • {{rank}}
safety pin {{wikipedia}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. a pin, in the form of a clasp, that has a guard to cover the sharp point; used to join two pieces of fabric etc together temporarily
  2. the pin of a hand grenade that prevents accidental detonation
safety school
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (US, colloquial) The least-desired among college and universities one applies to for admission, chosen as a contingency in case one is rejected from all others.
safety thongs
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (AU, informal) A comical name for inappropriate or unsafe footwear in an industrial workplace.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang) A native or inhabitant of South Africa.
noun: {{head}}
  1. (slang) plural of Saffer
saffronization {{wikipedia}} Alternative forms: saffronisation etymology saffron + ization, after the saffron robes worn by Hindu sannyasis symbolizing the cremation of the physical body and freedom of the soul while still alive.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (India, politics, derogatory) The politics of right-wing Hindu nationalism (Hindutva) that seek to make the Indian state adopt social policies that recall and glorify the ancient Hindu cultural history and heritage of India while de-emphasizing the more recent Islamic or Christian heritage.
saffronize etymology saffron + ize
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. (India, politics, derogatory) To subject to saffronization.
sag {{wikipedia}}
etymology 1 From late Middle English saggen, probably of Scandinavian/Old Norse origin (compare Norwegian sagga); probably akin to Danish and Norwegian sakke, Swedish sacka, Icelandic sakka, Old Norse sokkva. Compare also Low German sacken, Dutch zakken. pronunciation
  • {{enPR}}, /sæɡ/
  • {{rhymes}}
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. The state of sink or bend; sagging.
  2. The difference in elevation of a wire, cable, chain or rope suspend between two consecutive points.
  3. The difference height or depth between the vertex and the rim of a curved surface, specifically used for optical elements such as a mirror or lens.
verb: {{en-verb}}
  1. To sink, in the middle, by its weight or under applied pressure, below a horizontal line or plane. A line or cable supported by its ends sags, even if it is tightly drawn. The floor of a room sags.
  2. (by extension) To lean, give way, or settle from a vertical position. A building may sag one way or another. The door sags on its hinges.
  3. (figuratively) To lose firmness, elasticity, vigor, or a thriving state; to sink; to droop; to flag; to bend; to yield, as the mind or spirits, under the pressure of care, trouble, doubt, or the like; to be unsettled or unbalanced.
    • Shakespeare The mind I sway by, and the heart I bear, / Shall never sag with doubt nor shake with fear.
  4. To loiter in walking; to idle along; to drag or droop heavily.
  5. (transitive) To cause to bend or give way; to load.
  6. (informal) To wear one's trousers so that their top is well below the waist.
  • {{seeCites}}
etymology 2
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. alternative form of saag
    • 2003, Charles Campion, The Rough Guide to London Restaurants (page 173) The dal tarka (£5) is made from whole yellow split peas, while sag aloo (£5) brings potatoes in a rich and oily spinach puree.
  • gas, GSA, SGA
Saga lout etymology A parody of lager lout. Saga is a company that specialises in holidays for older people.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang, British) An older unruly tourist on holiday in the Mediterranean area.
Sagan Alternative forms: sagan etymology The unit is derived from the phrase billions and billions (of stars), frequently attributed to the American astronomer . The lower bound of a number must be two billion plus two billion, or four billion. popularized the phrase through his occasional impersonation of Sagan throughout his career.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (slang, humorous) A unit of measurement equal to at least four billion.
  • Angas
  • nagas, nāgas
Sagebrush State
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (colloquial) The US state of Nevada.
sage on the stage Alternative forms: sage on a stage
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. (education, sometimes mildly derogatory) An educator, especially at the postsecondary level, who impart knowledge by lecturing to an audience; the method of imparting knowledge used by such an educator.
    • 1981 August 6, "‘Gifted Students’ Classes Offered," Harlan Daily Enterprise (USA), p. 5 (retrieved 1 Sept 2013): Mrs. Johnson said the teacher for the gifted and talented will be more of a "guide on the side" rather than a "sage on the stage."
    • 2006 August 25, Nina Vizcarrondo, "Sci-Fi Today, Sci-Fact Tomorrow," Time (retrieved 1 Sept 2013): Case Western has always been an advocate of what Williams calls the "sage on the stage versus the guide on the side" learning method.
    • 2011 Dec. 15, Robert D. Dinerstein, "Limitations to the Method," New York Times (retrieved 1 Sept 2013): But the limitations of the method as usually employed — . . . its fostering of passivity on the part of those students not involved in the dialogue, and its privileging of the professor as the sage on the stage — are serious impediments.
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A box or casing of clay used to protect delicate ceramic during firing; a saggar
  2. (slang) term for a young male who wears trousers very low on his hip, exposing underwear and/or his buttocks or lower abdominals.
  • aggers
  • eggars
sailboat {{wikipedia}} Alternative forms: (Commonwealth English) sailing boat etymology sail + boat
noun: {{en-noun}}
  1. A boat propelled by a sail.
  2. (slang, card games) A playing card with the rank of four.
synonyms, hyponyms, meronyms:
  • See
Saint Monday
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (informal, Victorian England) The supposed holiday observed on a Monday morning by well-paid artisans who had been drinking etc the previous day
Saint Paddy's
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. (informal) Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Petersburg {{wikipedia}} Alternative forms: {{alter}} etymology English translation of Russian Санкт-Петербу́рг 〈Sankt-Peterbúrg〉, from German Sankt PeterBurg, referring to Saint Peter the Apostle and alluding to its founder Tsar Peter the Great.
proper noun: {{en-proper noun}}
  1. A major city in Russia, known between 1914 and 1924 as Petrograd and between 1924 and 1991 as Leningrad, and former capital of Russia (1713-1728, 1732-1918).
Synonyms: St. Petersburg, Petersburg (informal), Piter (colloquial), Sankt-Peterburg (transliteration)

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