The Alternative Latvian Dictionary: ciets

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Entry definition

ciets etymology From Proto-Baltic *kietas, from *keitas, from Proto-Indo-European *key- with an extra (adjectivizing) suffix -to-s. A parallel form with -tyo-s (*keityas, *kietyas) yielded Latvian ciešs. Meaning change: “moving” > “happy, safe, healthy” > “strong, rigid” > “hard.” Cognates include Lithuanian kietas, xsv kit, Prussian keytaro, Proto-Slavic *čitь 〈*čitʹ〉, *čitjь 〈*čitjʹ〉 (Russian dialectal читый 〈čityj〉, Serbo-Croatian čȉt, Slovenian čìt, čít).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
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  1. (physics) solid having stable form cieta viela, cietvielasolid substance cieti ķermeņisolid bodies cietais kurināmaissolid fuel ciets agregātstāvoklissolid state
  2. hard, solid, rigid difficult to split, crush, bend, etc. ciets minerāls, metālshard, solid mineral, metal ciets tērauds, granītshard, solid steel, granite ciets diamants, asmenshard, solid diamond, blade ciets zīmulishard pencil (with lead that wears out slowly) ciets kā akmenshard, solid as rock visi akmeņi nebūt nav vienādi cieti — not all stones are equally hard
  3. hard, solid having a layer of rock, or snow, or ice cieta augsne, grunts, pļavahard soil, ground, meadow ciets mālshard clay ciets pamatshard, soild foundation uzplēsti seši hektāri cietajā stepes zemē — six hectares of hard steppe land (were) broken up, plowed
  4. (of fabric, cloth) hard, solid strong, difficult to fold or bend; made of such fabric, cloth ciets audeklssolid canvas cieta aitādahard sheepskin ciets zābakshard boot viņš nēsāja uzkreklus ar cietām apkaklītēm — he wore a dickey with a hard collar
  5. (of furniture, cushions, etc.) hard not soft, resistant to pressure ciets dīvāns, spilvenshard sofa, pillow cieta gulta, atzveltnehard bed, back (of chair) tas krēsls man par cietu — that chair is too hard for me
  6. (of body parts, tissue) hard difficult to bend or break citie audihard tissue ciets kaulshard bone cieta ādahard skin cietās aukslējashard palate rokas bija pilnas cietu tulznu — (his) hands were full of hard blisters
  7. (of hands, their skin) hard, harden having strong, harsh skin cietas rokashard hands cieta plaukstahard palm (of hand)
  8. (of hair) thick, strong cieta bārdathick beard cietas ūsasthick mustache
  9. (of plants) hard difficult to bend, squeeze, trim, prune ciets koks, ozolshard tree, oak ciets stumbrs, zarshard trunk, branch ciets graudshard grain šo koku koksne pusotras reizes cietāka par dzelzi — the wood of these trees is one and a half times harder than iron
  10. (of food) hard difficult to bite and chew cieta gaļa, maizehard meat, bread ciets siershard cheese cieta olahard (boiled) egg
  11. (of character, will; of people, their behavior) hard, tough strong, determined, uncompromising, ruthless ciets raksturshard, tough character cieta dabahard, tough nature cieta sirdshard heart (i.e., cruel, ruthless) viņš bija ciets cilvēks — he was a hard, tough man (lit. person) ciets skatienshard look viņa sejas izteiksme bija cieta un nepielūdzama — his facial expression was hard and relentless
  12. (of faces, their features) hard, stiff kad pēc vēja brāzmas viņš pacēla seju augstāk, tā bija kļuvusi pelēki cieta ka sastingusi zeme — when after the wind gust he raised his face, it had become gray hard, stiff like frozen ground
  13. (of thoughts, ideas, promisess) hard, definite, clear, inalterable syn. ciešs ciets solījumssolemn promise kluss vīru pulks... viss gvarda vārdos teikts; vien cietam zvērestam ceļ katrs roku — the regiment of men (was) silent... all the words of the guard (oath) (were) said; every hand rose with one solemn oath
  14. (colloquial) rigid, definite, determined which cannot be arbitrarily changed cieta algarigid wage, salary cietas cenasrigid prices
  15. (of movements) hard, strong, determine mierigiem, cietiem soļiem viņš nāca tuvāk — with calm, strong steps he came closer mātes skāviens ir karsts, ciets, izmisīgs — mother's hug is warm, strong, desperate
  16. (of sleep) tight syn. ciešs visa nakts tad bija pavadīta cietā, veselīgā miegā — the whole night was spent in tight, healthy sleep
  17. (of water) hard which contains salts, usually of calcium and magnesium ciets ūdens mazgāšanai nav derīgshard water is not appropriate for washing
  18. (of wind, weather) strong, sharp jūra bija balta un ziemeļu vējš kļuva aizvien cietāks — the sea was white and the northern wind became increasingly harder, sharper ja priedes tā šūpojas, tad ir vētra, ciets laiks, kā saka tēvs — if the pines are swaying like that, then there is a storm, hard weather, as father said / used to say
  19. (adverbial form; of people, objects) tight(ly) close, close together syn. ciešs, cieši cieti citu pie citasvery close one by the other
Synonyms: (of "hard, solid, rigid") stings, stingrs, stīvs, (of "thick"; "concentrated (look)"; "strong (movement)"; "sleep"; "close together") ciešs
antonyms:
  • (of "state of matter") šķidrs (“liquid”), gāzveidīgs (“gaseous”)
  • (of "hard", including "hard water") mīksts
related terms:
  • ciešs
  • ciet
  • cietoksnis

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