The Alternative Latvian Dictionary: dzīt

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Entry definition

dzīt
etymology 1 The present stem dzen- comes from Proto-Baltic *gen-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰen-, whereas the infinitive stem dzī- comes from Proto-Baltic *gin-, from *gʷʰen-, the zero grade of *gʷʰen-. The original sense was “to hit,” still visible in dzīt naglu “to drive a nail (into wood).” It later evolved into “to force,” “to drive” (somewhere). Cognates include Lithuanian giñti (present tense genù), gìnti (present tense ginù), Prussian guntwei, gunnimai (apparently first-person plural form), Proto-Slavic *gъnati 〈*gʺnati〉, present tense *žěno (Russian гнать 〈gnatʹ〉, Belarusian гнаць 〈gnacʹ〉, Ukrainian гнати 〈gnati〉, Bulgarian гоня 〈gonâ〉, Czech hnáti, Polish gnać), Old High German gund-, Old Norse gunnr, Norwegian dialectal gana, Hittite kuenzi, Sanskrit हन्ति 〈hanti〉, Avestan 𐬘𐬀𐬌𐬥𐬙𐬌 〈𐬘𐬀𐬌𐬥𐬙𐬌〉, Ancient Greek φόνος 〈phónos〉 (< *gʷʰen-), θείνω 〈theínō〉 (< *gʷʰen-), Latin dēfendō (< *gʷʰen-).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
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  1. to lead, to drive to make (animals, people, etc.) go faster, or in a certain direction dzīt zirgus ātrāk — to make the horses go faster dzīt zirgus aplokā — to drive, to lead the horses into the paddock dzīt ganos — to take (the animals) to pasture (to graze) dzīt govis ārā no labības — to drive the cows away from the grains bet lopi gan jādzen no kūts ārā — but we have to drive, move the animals out of the barn pa ceļu divas sievietes dzina sarkanu govi — two women were leading the red cow along the road daži jātnieki aizaulekšoja dzīt kopā ciemniekus — some riders galloped to drive the villagers together (= to make them gather together)
  2. (of objects) to push, to pull, so as to make (something) move in a certain direction dzīt ratiņus pa ceļu — to push, to pull a cart on the road nosēdies airos, Pičs ar vienmērīgiem un spēcīgiem vēzieniem dzina laivu uz priekšu — sitting at the oars, Pičs with steady and strong strokes drove, moved the boat forward daudzi šīs brigādes vīri dzen tīklus Daugavā jau garu garos gadu desmitus — many of the men in this team drove (= threw, cast) nets in the Daugava (= fished in the Daugava) for already a good ten years
  3. (of inanimate beings) to move, to drive, to propel to make a vehicle move motors ar lielu prieku dzen laivu ar zvejniekiem pertī jaunam lomam — the motor with great joy moved, propelled the boat with the firshermen to(ward) a new catch rudens vējš dzen lapu virpuļus — the autumn wind moved, drove the leaf in a whirl nelaba jausma dzina Osi tālāk — a bad premonition, apprehension drove Osis further
  4. (usually together with prom, projām, ārā) to send (something) away; to make (something) disappear dzīt laukā no mājām — to send away from the house dzīt prom no galda — to push away from the table ienaidnieks uz mūžu projām dzīts — the enemy for life (has been) driven away nekas, nekas, tas dzen reimatismu ārā — no, not at all, this drives the rheumatism away
  5. to make (someone) do something; to make someone do something (e.g., work) at full capacity dzīt pie darba — to make (someone) go to work dzīt zirgus auļos — to drive the horses into a gallop vagars dzen zemniekus, muižkungs vagaru un lielskungs viņus abus — the overseer drives the peasants (= makes them work), the estate manager (drives) the overseer, and the landlord both of them tas bija steidzīgs pasūtījums; meistars dzina strādniekus un mudināja — this was an urgent order; the master drove the workers (= made them work), urging them
  6. (colloquial, of vehicles) to drive them at full speed dzīt mašīnu, velosipēdu — to drive a car, a bicycle (as fast as it will go)
  7. to chase to run after, e.g., an animal, during a hunt, so as to make sure it goes in a certain direction tagad sāk dzīt zaķi pa upes krastiem — now they began to chase a hare along the river banks puisim ar suņiem jāiet apkārt uz viņu pusi un jāsāk dzīt — the young man with the dogs has to go around to his side and begin to chase (the game)
  8. to chase to follow, to try to find, especially in a hunt dzīt pēdas — to follow (lit. chase) a trail jau vairākus mēnešus drošības dienests dzina pēdas nelegālai organizācijai — already for many months the security service has been following (lit. chasing) the trail to the illegal organization
  9. to drive to force something into something else, usually with physical strength dzīt naglu sienā — to drive a nail into the wall dzīt mietu zemē — to drive, to stick a pole into the ground pirksti steigšus dzen patronu stobrā — (his) fingers hastily drove, stuck the cartridge into the barrel
  10. to drive, to clear to make (a path, a furrow) in a certain direction, usually via hard work Albīns dzina pēdējo stigu gar meža malu — Albīns cleared (lit. drove) the last firebreak along the edge of the forest izaugs dēls; un jaunas vagas dzīs — the son will grow up, and he will drive (= clear, open) new furrows
  11. to drive to cause, to be the cause of something unpleasant happening to someone dzīt postā, izmisumā — to drive (someone) to misery, to despair dzīt nāvē — to send, drive (someone) to death bet šis uzņēmums bija tas, kas Nagainim sagādāja daudz raižu un dzina aizvien dziļāk parādos — but it was this company that caused great trouble to Nagainis, and drove (him) deeper and deeper into debt
  12. (usually 3rd person, of plants) to grow new growth, shoot, sprout to produce as part of their bodies dzīt asnus, atvases — to grow sprouts, shoots līdzko augsne atkususi, sparģeļi dzen asnus — as soon as the soil thaws, the asparagus grows sprouts pēc noziedēšanas un augļu nogatavošanās agave iet bojā, bet saknenis dzen jaunas lapu rozetes — after flowering and bearing fruit, the agave dies, but its rootstock grows new leaf rosettes
  13. (colloquial) to gather, to put together (by pushing, carrying, etc.) dzīt malku mājās — to gather firewood at home dzīt mantu, naudu — to gather riches, money saimnieks dzina iepriekšējās dienas pļāvumu vālos — the farmer drove (= gathered) the result of the previous' days mowing into piles
etymology 2 From {{calque}}. has been critical of many suggested Livonian calques in Latvian, however, the semantic split of the verb dzīt "to chase away" doubling to mean "to shave" is convincing according to him. Compare Livonian abbiņi ajjõ, Estonian habet ajama.Marta Rudzīte, ''Latviešu un lībiešu valodas savstarpējā ietekme'' in Kersti Boiko's ''[http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/handle/10062/16959 Lībieši – rakstu krājums]'', page 294 pronunciation
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  1. to shave dzīt bārdu, matus — to shave (one's) beard, hair
It is very common that speakers relegate dzīt to mean shaving with some type of an electrical appliance such as a hair trimmer, in turn, using skūt to refer to shaving with a razor.
etymology 3 From Proto-Baltic *dzi-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷeyh₃- 〈*gʷeyh₃-〉, *gʷeyh₃- 〈*gʷeyh₃-〉 (< *gʷeyh₃- 〈*gʷeyh₃-〉). The original meaning was thus “to live,” from which “to become healthy.” At first there was an opposition between dzīt “to heal, become healthy” (present tense dzīstu) and dzīt “to live” (present tense dzīvu), but the latter form was later replaced by dzīvot, possibly originally its iterative form. Cognates include Lithuanian gýti, Proto-Slavic *žiti (Russian жить 〈žitʹ〉, Belarusian жыць 〈žycʹ〉, Ukrainian жити 〈žiti〉, живити 〈živiti〉, Upper Sorbian žić, Avestan , Ancient Greek βίος 〈bíos〉 (< *gʷi-). pronunciation
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  1. (of wounds, scars) to heal to become whole, to disappear with the formation of new tissue vātis dzīst — the wounds are healing ievainojums dzija lēni — the injury healed slowly visas brūces reiz dzīst — all wounds heal once (= at some point)
  2. (of body parts, organs) to heal to become healthy again Ošu Andram apdauzītais pirksts gan lāgā negribēja dzīt, bet akmeņu laušana tomēr veicās labi — Ošu Andrs' injured finger would not heal properly, nevertheless the stone breaking was going well

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