The Alternative Latvian Dictionary

Android app on Google Play

Colourful extracts from Wiktionary. Slang, vulgarities, profanities, slurs, interjections, colloquialisms and more.

Page 2 of 2

Entries

foršāk
adverb: {{lv-adv}}
  1. (colloquial form) cooler, in a cooler, greater way; lv-adv form of foršāks
foršākais
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial form) the cooler, the greater; lv-comparative of foršs
foršāks
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial form) cooler, greater; lv-comparative of foršs
forši
adjective: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of foršs
adverb: {{lv-adv}}
  1. (colloquial form) cool, great, in a cool, great way; lv-adv form of foršs tas bija šausmīgi forši teikts — this was terribly well said (= in a terribly cool way)
foršs etymology Apparently a Borrowing from German forsch. pronunciation {{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial) cool, good, fine, great, attractive es domāju, ka Toms ir foršs puisis — I think that Toms is a cool, attractive guy ir kāda forša sieviete no Rīgas, kas vēlētos šodien aiziet uz randiņu? — is there a cool, hot lady from Riga who would like to go out on a date today? esmu redzējis foršu filmu — I've seen a cool movie forša dziesmiņa — a cool little song forša sajūta — a cool, fine feeling arī matemātika var būt forša — also mathematics can be cool
The word foršs, though not listed in standard Latvian dictionaries, is very frequent, especially in colloquial language. Some advise against its use and suggest replacing it with other expressions. Synonyms: jauks, patīkams, skaists
gatavs etymology This word is traditionally considered (together with its Lithuanian and Prussian cognates) a borrowing from sla, itself, in turn, also traditionally seen as a borrowing from gem (Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 〈𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽〉 may have had a derived adjective *gataws). A more recent hypothesis is that the sla words were not borrowed, but derive from Proto-Indo-European *gʷā-, *gʷeh₂- 〈*gʷeh₂-〉: from short-vowel forms like supine *gʷatu, one would have Proto-Slavic *got-, from which *gotovъ 〈*gotovʺ〉. The original meaning would have been “(about) to go,” “ready (to go),” from which “ready.” (For similar semantic changes, cf. German bereit “ready,” reiten “to ride,” fertig “ready,” Fahrt “a ride,” and English ready, ride). If this hypothesis is correct, then Latvian gatavs might also not be a borrowing, but a direct development of Proto-Indo-European *gʷā-, *gʷeh₂- 〈*gʷeh₂-〉: note that this stem has other bat reflexes not shared by sla (e.g., Lithuanian góti “to go quickly,” or Latvian gāju “I went,” gaita “gate, pace”, gatve “alley, avenue”, dialectal gatava “path, alley”). Note also that Latvian gatavs has some meanings and uses (“mature,” “ripe”; also “full, complete” in negative uses, e.g. “a complete idiot”) not shared by its sla counterparts (but, interestingly, often shared by its fiu translation equivalents: Estonian valmis “ready; ripe; finished”), which suggests that it is an old word. Cognates include Lithuanian gãtavas, Prussian pogattawint, Church Slavic готовъ 〈gotovʺ〉, Russian готовый 〈gotovyj〉, Belarusian гатовы 〈gatovy〉, Ukrainian готовий 〈gotovij〉, Bulgarian готов 〈gotov〉, Czech hotový, Polish gotowy, gotów, Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 〈𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽〉, 𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 〈𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽〉 {{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. ready such that it has reached its final or desired state, form; such that it has been prepared, completed jauna ēka ir gatava — the new building is ready zīmējums ir gatavs — the drawing is ready pirkt gatavu mēteli — to buy a ready(-made) coat gatava mašīnas detaļa — a ready(-made) car part laivai airi jau gatavi — the paddles are ready for the boat vakariņas ir gatavas — dinner is ready (to eat) kartupeļi ir gatavi — the potatoes are ready (= cooked) gatavai zupai pievieno zaļumus — he adds vegetables to the ready (= already cooked) soup kad visraksts bija gatavs, es sāku domāt... — when the title was ready, I started thinking... brokastis bija gatavas; vajadzēja tikai likt galdā — the breakfast was ready; it just needed to be put on the table vai jums ir gatavs saraksts par skolas gados esošajiem bērniem? — have you prepared a list (lit. do you have a ready list) of the children of school age?
  2. ready such that it is now able to do something, to be used in a certain way gatavs darbamready to work gatavs mācītiesready to study gatavs palīdzētready to help kaķis bija gatavs lēcienam — the cat was ready to jump Imants nodreb, pēkšņi uzlec kājās: “nāciet, bendes! esmu gatavs mirt!” — Imants shuddered (and) suddenly jumped up: “come, henchmen! I am ready to die!” es biju gatava derēt, ka sievietes domas un, kā man šķita, sapņainais skatiens šai brīdī kavējās ne tikai pie rozēm — I was ready to bet that the woman's thoughts and, as it seemed to me, her dreamy glance did not linger only on the roses this time tētiņ, pirts nu ir gatava, bet kur ņemšu ūdeni? — father, now the bath (place) is ready (for you), but where do I get water? rudzu zeme gatava, tikai patlaban bija pārāk sauss, vēl dažas dienas līdz sēšanai jāpagaida — the rye land (is) ready, but right now it is too dry, one must wait a few days before sowing
  3. (of thoughts, ideas) ready, ready-made, formulaic prepared in advance, not taking into account the actual situation or context bet viņai ir vienmēr par visu gatavi spredumi — but she always has a ready judgment (= opinion) about everything stāstā nav netīkamas rakstnieka pozas, kuram jau iepriekš viss skaidrs, kuram vienmēr gatava atbilde uz jebkuru — in the story there is no unpleasant posturing by the author, to whom everything is clear in advance, who has a ready answer to everything
  4. (of fruits, seeds) ripe, mature which has reached full growth gatavi āboliripe apples gatavs dzeltens bumbieris — a ripe yellow pear tomāti ir gatavi — the tomatoes are ripe rudzi jau gatavi — the rye (is) already ripe labība ir gatava — the crops are ripe, ready lasīt gatavas ogas — to pick ripe berries rieksti bija pilnīgi brūni un gatavi — the nuts were fully brown and ripe
  5. (figuratively) ripe, mature such that its quality has reached a high aesthetic level nākošie darbi jau ir gatavāki, rakstnieks samērā labi atrisina formas un satura problēmas — the next works are more mature, the writer has better solved the problems of form and content radīta viena no labākajām, mākslinieciski gatavākajām šā teātra izrādēm — one of the best, artistically most mature performances of this theater has been created
  6. (usually in the definite form) real, true; used to reinforce the, usually negative, meaning of the following word gatavais palaidnis — a real(ly) mischievous child gatavais negals ar zēnureal trouble, problems with (that) boy gatavais putnu biedēklis — a true scarecrow (= a really ugly person) tas nebija dēlis, bet gatavais stikls — that wasn't a (wooden) log, but real glass
  7. (colloquial) finished; dead viņam iekoda čūska, un pēc dažām stundām gatavs bija — a snake bit him, and after a few hours he was finished (= dead) dabūjis netīšu sitienu pa deniņiem: gatavs — he got an accidental blow on the head: finished (= now he is dead)
related terms:
  • gatavot
greznība etymology From grezns + ība. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. luxury the quality of that which is luxurious, luxuriant sevišķa greznība galmā bija Katrīnas II laikā, kuras “vājība” bija briljanti — there was special luxury in court during the time of Ekaterina II, whose “weakness” were brilliants lielpilsētu dzīve un bagātības ap viņām meitenēm kūso un mirdz greznībā un pārpilnībā — the metropolitan life and wealth around the girls sparkles and shines in luxury and abundance
  2. (colloquial) extravagance lieka greznība — superfluous extravagance, luxury tādas lietas ir tīrā greznība — such things are pure luxury (i.e., superfluous)
Synonyms: krāšņums
related terms:
  • greznums
greznums etymology From grezns + ums. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. luxury, luxuriousness the quality of that which is luxurious, luxuriant tērpa greznumsluxuriousness of costume, pomp greznuma priekšmetsluxury object, trinket par indietes mīlestību uz greznumu, krāsu bagātību liecina ne tikai apģērba krāšņie audumi, bet arī parādītās rotas lietas — not only the magnificent fabrics bear witness to the Indian women's love of luxury and color richness, but also the jewelry on display
  2. (colloquial) luxury, extravagance grāmatas bija ļoti dārgas un ne katrs varēja atļauties šādu greznumu — books were very expensive (in those days) and not everyone could afford such a luxury
  3. ornament, embellishment tad šķirstu ielaida kapa... uz tā vienīgais greznums un kā augstākā goda zīme palika vainadziņš no dzimtas Latvijas mūžzaļajiem brūklenājiem — then the coffin was lowered into the grave... on it, the only luxury, a symbol of the highest honor, remained (= was) the wreath of evergreen native Lativan bilberries
Synonyms: krāšņums, greznojums
related terms:
  • greznība
  • greznot, greznojums
gribēt etymology From Proto-Baltic *greyb-, *grib-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰreyb-, *gʰrib- (from its parallel variant *gʰrebʰ- comes Latvian grābt, q.v.), from a root *gʰer- with an extra -(y)b. The semantic evolution apparently was “to seize, to grab” > “to be about to, to want to (seize, grab)” > “to want.” Cognates include Lithuanian griẽbti 〈griẽbti〉, dialectal greibti, Gothic 𐌲𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍀𐌰𐌽 〈𐌲𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍀𐌰𐌽〉, Old High German grifan, German greifen, English grip.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to want to feel the need for something, to desire something gribēt ēst, dzert — to be hungry, thirsty (lit. to want to eat, to drink) gribēt strādāt, mācīties — to want to work, to study bērns grib gulēt — the child wants to sleep dara, ko grib — (he) does what (he) wants gribot negribotwanting, not wanting (= willy-nilly) negribēt (ne) dzirdēt — not (even) want to hear (= to be categorically against) visas tautas grib mieru, grib celt jaunus namus, dēstīt dārzus — all peoples want piece, (they) want to build new houses, to plant gardens
  2. to want to intend, to plan Ozols gribēja Vili iepazīstin viņš grib līdz vakaram pabeigt iesākto darbu — he wants to finish the work (he) started by evening
  3. (colloquial) to want to be able to (in a given situation), to be about to mitrā malka negribēja degt — the wet firewood didn't want to (= couldn't, wouldn't) burn gribēju izdarīt lielu kļūdu — I wanted (= was about) to make a big mistake skapis gandrīz gribēja apgāzties — the cupboard almost wanted (= was likely) to fall over tik liels un pieaudzis viņš ilgos gados bija kļuvis, ka Pelašķiene to pirmajā mirklī lāgā pazīt negribēja — (in, during) many years he had grown so big that Pelašķiene at first didn't quite want to (= couldn't quite) recognize him
Synonyms: vēlēties
related terms:
  • griba
griezt
etymology 1 From earlier *grenz-, from Proto-Baltic *grenž-, from Proto-Indo-European *grenǵ-, from the of Proto-Indo-European *ger- with an extra ǵ and an infix -n-. A minority opinion considers griezt to have the same origin as griezt (see below), with the circular motion meaning coming from certain ways of cutting. Cognates include Lithuanian grę̃žti, Prussian granstis, greanste, Old Norse kringr, kringla, cranga, German Kringel, Dutch krinkel.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to turn, to spin to move, to cause something to move in circular motion, around an axis griezt tecīlu — to turn the grindstone ūdens griež turbīnas — the water turns the turbine Ieva grieza telefona ripu — Ieva dialed (lit. turned the telephone dial) puiši griež meitenes dejā — the boys turn the girls in the dance
  2. (usually of the wind) to turn, to whirl to cause something to move in a whirl, swirl ass vējš grieza sniega mutuļus — the sharp wind gave the snow a whirl (lit. turned snow whirls) rudens vējš purina kokus, atrauj un griež virpulī zeltainas lapas — the autumn wind shakes the trees, tears the golden leaves apart and turns them in a whirl(wind)
  3. (when dancing) to turn, to whirl, to dance in fast circle griezt valsi — to whirl (= dance) a waltz pēc gadiem trauku polku griežu — after (many) years I am (now) whirling (= dancing) a crazy polka
  4. to turn to change the position or the direction of motion of something griezt automašīnu pa labi — to turn the car to the right griezt zirgu uz ceļa — to turn the horse (back) to the road griezt lopus uz māju pusi — to turn the animals back home griezt par labu — to turn to good (= to fix, to make up for) viņi iedarbina motoru un griež laivu atpakaļ uz pilsētu — he started the motor and turned the ship back to(ward) the city Ceplis tiešām nesaprata, kā viņš bija visu to varējis, pilnīgi pazaudējot pašsavaldīšanos... tagad vajadzēja mēģināt visu par labu griezt — Ceplis really couldn't understand how he had been able to do all that, to have completely lost his self-control... now he had to try to make (lit. turn) it good (= fix it, make up for it)
  5. (usually with apkārt, otrādi, uz otru pusi) to turn to reverse the orientation or configuration of something to its opposite griezt apkārt — to turn around (= upside down) griezt cimdu otrādi — to turn the glove (inside out) griezt mēteli uz otro pusi — to turn the coat (inside out) griezt kažokam otru pusi, griezt kažoku uz otro pusi — to turn the coat (= to change one's position completely) trīs dienas pēc kārtas griezu apkārt visus Rīgas cepuru veikalus; uzlaikoju tūkstošiem dažādu platmaļu — three days in a row I turn all hat shops in Rīga upside down (looking for something); I tried thousands of different hats on
  6. to turn, to turn around to move (something) in all directions, from one side to another, to and fro (usually nervously griezt vēstuli rokās — he turned the letter in his hands rakstā viņš iemeta tikai paviršu mirkli, bet zīmogu aplūkoja pamatīgi, papīru pirkstos riņķi griezdams un iestādes nosaukumu burtodams — he cast only a superficial glance on the text, but the seal he examined thoroughly, turning the paper in his hands and spelling the name of the institution
  7. to turn to point, to direct something to, at, against something else; also metaphorically, e.g., attention, a topic of conversation griezt ieročus pret ienaidnieku — to turn (one's) weapon against the enemy griezt seju pret sauli — to turn (one's) face to the sun katrs vēja pūtiens griež viņas skatienu pāri ciemam uz jūru — every blow of the wind turns her gaze over the village to the sea Gusts ienācis un apsveicinājies sāka valodu griezt uz nupat nobeigto sēju — Gusts came in and, after greeting, began to turn the talk (= coversation) to the just abandoned sowing Kārlis pirmais palēnina soļus, lai nebūtu piepeši jāapstājas un tā jāgriež uz sevi uzmanība — Kārlis first slowed down his steps, so that he wouldn't have to stop and turn (other people's) attention to himself
  8. to weave, to roll up to make something by wrapping, rolling up, weaving something else griezt cigāru — to roll up a cigar griezt virvi — to weave a rope Jānis sniedzas pēc tabakas un griež rūpīgi un apdomīgi no kāda plāna papīra smēķi — Jānis reached for the tobacco and rolled up every thin (piece of) paper carefully and deliberately into a smoke (= cigarette)
  9. to turn, to bend, to twirl to curve the shape of something; to produce something curved while growing griezt ūsas — to twirl (one's) mustache (sa)griezt gredzenā — to turn, bend (something) into a ring grieztās riņķa kāpnes — a circular staircase (lit. stairs turned into a cirlce) agrīnie lini jau sāka griezt galus sprogās — the early flax had already started turning its ends into curls mums mājās dobē agrie kāposti jau grieza galviņas, bet arī nezāles bija stipri sakuplojušas — in (their) beds in our home the cabbages have already turned (= grown) heads, but also the weeds have grown thick
  10. to wring, to twist (e.g., wet clothes) in order to force out the liquid griezt palagu pēc skalošanas — to wring the sheets after washing griezt salijušas drēbes — to wring drenched clothes viņš uzmeta acis zēna glābējam, kas bija novilcis virsbikses un grieza nost lieko ūdeni — he turned his eyes to the rescuer of the child, who had taken off his overpants and was wringing the excess water out
  11. (colloquial) to work, to make, to do something (important) es jau ar mežiem griežu lielas lietas, un koku fabrika arī man labi strādā — I am turning (= doing) great things with the forests, and the wood factory works well for me kas ir mana fotodarbnīca, salīdzinot ar tiem darba apjomiem, kādus mēs griežam kolhozā!? — what is my foto lab, in comparison with the range of work that we turn (= do) in the collective farm!?
Synonyms: (of "to direct, to point") vērst, virzīt
related terms:
  • gredzens
etymology 2 From Proto-Baltic *griež-, from *greiž-, from Proto-Indo-European *greyǵ, from the of a stem *ger- with an extra (y)ǵ. With a different extra element at the end, *ger- yielded Prussian gīrbin (< “mark(s), cut(s), incision(s)”), orv жеребей 〈žerebej〉, Russian жребий 〈žrebij〉 (< “cut, jagged, carved stick, wand”), Old English ceorfan, Old High German kerban. Cognates include Lithuanian gríežti. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to cut to separate a part of something with a sharp tool griezt papīru, drēbi — to cut paper, cloth griezt ziedus — to cut flowers griezt maizi — to cut bread Andrs dziedādams grieza lapainos zarus un vilka čupā, acīm redzami, būdu gribēja taisīt — singing, Andrs cut softwood branches and pulled them to a pile; clearly, he wanted to make a hut griezta brūce izveidojas, iegriežot ar asu priekšmetu... šādas brūces malas ir gludas, un brūce stipri asiņo — a cut (= cutting) wound happens when one is cutting with a sharp object... the edges of these wounds are smooth, and they bleed heavily
  2. (of a sharp tool) to cut šķēres labi griež — the scissors cut well nazis negriež — the knife doesn't cut (= is blunt) kokus grieza spēcīgs elektriskais zāģis — a powerful electric saw was cutting the trees
  3. (colloquial) to cut to perform surgery; to remove surgically griezt aklo zarnu — to cut (= remove) the appendix (= to perform an appendicectomy)
  4. (of plow blades) to cut to plow the soil dienu un nakti traktors loba tukšos laukus, un spīdīgie lemeši griež rudens arumus — day and night the tractor plowed the empty fields, and the shiny blades cut the autumn plowed soil
  5. of grass, lawns to cut, to mow mēs ar vectēvu griezam līci; zāle bija diezgan jauna un mīksta — grandpa and I mowed (lit. cut) the bay; the grass was quite new and soft
  6. figuratively to advance against something (an obstacle, etc.); to advance, leaving a mark on something kuģa priekšgals griež viļņus — the front of the boat cut the waves prožektoru gaisma griež tumsu — the projectors' light cut the darkness ar slidām griezt ledu — to cut the ice with (one's) skis riteņi griež ceļu līdz rumbām! — the wheels are cutting the ground (lit. road) to the hubs!
  7. to cut, to bite to penetrate; to rub in a way that causes discomfort, pain; to cause discomfort, pain aukla griež delnā — the string cuts, bites in the palm (of his hand) spaiņa stīpa sāpīgi griež rokā — the bucket handle cuts, bites painfully in (his) hand spožā gaisma griež acīs — the bright light cuts, bites in the eye (= dazzles painfully) Līzei sāpīgi grieza tēva nicinājums — her father's contempt cut, bit Līze painfully
  8. to cut out, to carve; to engrave to make something using a sharp instrument griezt koka rotaļlietas — to cut, to carve wooden toys griezt nūjā robus — to cut, to make an incision on a stick ne no katra koka var svilpes griezt — not from all (kinds of) wood can one cut, make a whistle Āziju atgādina... gaumīgie pasažieru ostas vārti ar kokā grieztiem austrumnieciskiem rakstiem — the stylish passanger (air)port gateway with (its) engraved Eastern patterns reminded (us) of Asia
  9. (with nost, klāt, of land) to cut off, to separate, to take away “bet ko tad nu iesāksim?” Irma turpinajā; “trīsdesmit hektāru mums griezīšot nost... iztiec nu ar otriem trīsdesmit!” — “but what are we going to do now?” Irma continued; “they will cut off (= take away) thirty hectares from us; (we'll have) to do with (only) the other thirty (hectares)!”
  10. (of corncrakes and some other birds) to chirp to produce its characteristic sound, reminiscent of the sound of cutting rasainajā pļavā kā ar izkapti grieza grieze — in the dewy meadow the corncrake chirped (lit. cut) as if with a scythe pie debesīm atmirdzēja retas zvaigznes; kaut kur aiz upes grieza vientuļa grieze — on the sky, a few rare stars were shining; somewhere beyond the river a single corncrake was chirping (lit. cutting)
related terms:
  • graizīt
grūts etymology From Proto-Baltic *grūtas, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷru-to-s, from the stem *gʷer-. Cognates include Gothic 𐌺𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌾𐍉𐍃 〈𐌺𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌾𐍉𐍃〉 (plural), Sanskrit गुरु 〈guru〉, Ancient Greek βαρύς 〈barýs〉 (< *gʷerù-), Latin brūtus (< *gʷru-), gravis (< *gʷrəu-).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. tough, arduous, difficult which needs great physical force, great physical strain to be carried out grūts darbstough, hard work grūts ceļojumsarduous journey izcīnīt grūtu uzvaru — to win a difficult victory aiz krūmiem darbs bija grūtāks — behind the bushes the work was harder
  2. difficult, tough, hard, complicated which needs great mental effort for its realization, solution, acquisition or disposition grūts eksāmens — a difficult exam grūts jautājums — a tough question grūts aritmētikas uzdevums — a difficult arithmetic problem grūts dzejolis — a difficult poem grūta izvēle — a difficult choice māte neatbildēja; zinātkārīgā puisēna jautājums varbūt viņai bija par grūtu — the mother didn't answer; the curious boy's question was maybe too difficult for her
  3. difficult which involves some unpleasant experience or unpleasant feelings for its realization grūta saruna — a difficult conversation grūta atzīšanās — a difficult confession nezinu, tas laikam ir pats grūtākais: būt vienaldzīgam, izlikties, ka visu jau zini arī tad, kad tavā priekšā atklājas pilnīgi jauna pasaule — I don't know, maybe this is the most difficult: to be indifferent, to pretend that you know everything already, when right in front of you a whole new world opens up
  4. difficult, hard, tough involving hard work, complicated or embarrassing circumstances, hardships, conflicts, etc. grūti mājas apstākļidifficult home circumstances grūta nedēļadifficult week pārdzīvot grūtus gadus — to survive difficult years mēs zinām, ka šis ir grūts laiks, ļoti grūts laiks gan karavīriem frontē, gan jums — we know that these are difficult times, very difficult times, both for the soldiers at the front and for you
  5. difficult, hard, tough, heavy causing or expressing suffering, emotional distress grūti pārdzīvojumidifficult experiences grūtas nopūtasheavy sighs ar grūtu, smagu sirdi — with a heavy heart (= in a sad, depressed mood) tikai pēc laba brīža Līzbete attapās no grūtām, grūtām domām un izdvesa gari stieptā nopūtā — only after a good (= long) moment Līzbete recovered from her difficult, hard thoughts and let out a long sigh
  6. difficult, hard, tough involving strong physical pain, debilitation, or other negative physical conditions grūta slimībadifficult, hard disease grūta operācijadifficult operation, surgery slimnieka stāvoklis bija grūts — the patient's condition was difficult purva smaka padarīja elpu grūtu — the swamp smell made breathing difficult taču dzemdības izrādījās ļoti grūtas, ar visādām komplikācijām — but the birth turned out to be very difficult, with all kinds of complications
  7. of feelings, memories difficult having gaps; incomplete grūta atmiņadifficult memory (= difficult to remember) grūta galvadifficult head (= person prone to forgetting, not good at understanding)
  8. (colloquial) pregnant Ieva tapa grūta un dzemdēja — Ieva became pregnant and gave birth būt uz grūtām kājām — to be on heavy feet (= to be pregnant)
Synonyms: sarežģīts, smags, svarīgs
antonyms:
  • viegls
related terms:
  • grūsns
gudrība etymology From gudrs + ība. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. intelligence, wiseness, wisdom the quality of one who is wise, intelligent mīklas visām tautām ir bijušas gudrības pārbaudīšanas līdzeklis — riddles have been for all nations a means of testing intelligence, wisdom viņas spēks iet roku rokā ar gudrību un mīlestību — her strength goes hand in hand with wisdom and love
  2. wisdom collection of knowledge dzīves gudrība — life wisdom grāmatu gudrība — book wisdom, knowledge ābeces gudrība — ABC wisdom (i.e., elementary knowledge) māte darīja man zināmu seno tautas gudrību par augsto kāpšanu un iespējamo zemo krišanu — mother did (= gave) me some ancient people's wisdom about climbing high and the possible downfall
  3. word of wisdom, advice, suggestion, recommendation ja nebijis Zelmas gudrība, nezin vai mamma būtu maz ņēmusi rokā siksnu toreiz — if it hadn't been for Zelma's wisdom (= wise advice), it's not clear whether or not mom would have taken the little strap into her hands Austra, Marta un Lonija iekārtojās solā netālu no vieniem vārtiem; tā bija Lonijas gudrība, jo, kā viņa teica, te varēšot vislabāk redzēt uzbrucēju darbu futbola sacensībās — Austra, Marta and Lonija settled on the bench near one of the goals; this was Lonija's wisdom (= wise suggetion), because, as she said, there they would be able to see the attack better in the soccer match
  4. (colloquial) understanding, clarity, common sense klausies tik visādas sievu pasakas, tad tu gan tiksi pie gudrības! — listen to all kinds of women's stories, then you'll come by wisdom! (= become wise; meant ironically)
Synonyms: zināšana
related terms:
  • gudrinieks, gudriniece
  • gudrs
homiķis etymology From homo-, used to mean homosexuality. The ending -(i)ķis may be some kind of diminutive (compare Russian гомик 〈gomik〉).
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (vulgar, derogatory) homo, fag, queer
Synonyms: gejs, pediņš
idiote etymology From idiots + e pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (female) idiot woman with extremely serious problems in her mental development idiote kopš bernības — a (female) idiot from birth
  2. (colloquial) (female) fool, stupid woman iemīlējusies idiote — a (female) fool in love tu esi tāda idiote, bet es tevi tik un tā mīlu! — you are such a (female) idiot, but I love you anyway
Synonyms: (of "mentally undeveloped") debila (adjective), imbecila (adjective), (of "fool", "stupid") duraks, muļķe, neprāte, stulbene
related terms:
  • idiotija
  • idiotisks
idiotisks etymology From idiots + isks. Probably not derived as such in Latvian, but borrowed and adapted from another European language. pronunciation {{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. idiotic afflicted with severe mental underdevelopment; typical of idiots idiotisks izskatsidiotic appearance
  2. (colloquial, offensive) idiotic, stupid, foolish idiotisks jautājumsstupid question tajā dienā vakara maiņā koridorā stāvēja viens no visidiotiskākajiem Centrālcietuma uzraugiem — on that day, in the evening shift, one of the most idiotic central prison supervisors was standing in the corridor
  3. (colloquial) stupid ugly, useless kāpēc man vajadzēja vilkt šo idiotisko melno mēteli, kurā es izskatos pēc pensionēta arhibīskapa! — why was I supposed to wear this stupid black coat, in which I look like a retired archbishop!
Synonyms: (of "mentally undeveloped") debils, imbecils, (of "foolish", "stupid") dumjš, muļķīgs, neprātīgs, stulbs
idiots etymology Via other European languages, ultimately from Ancient Greek ἰδιώτης 〈idiṓtēs〉, from ἴδιος 〈ídios〉; ἰδιώτης 〈idiṓtēs〉 was used derisively in ancient Athens to refer to one who declined to take part in public life. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (male) idiot person with extremely serious problems in their mental development idiots kopš bernībasidiot from birth
  2. (colloquial) (male) fool, stupid man Jānis nosauca viņu par idiotu un pēc tam divas dienas nerunāja ne vārda — Jānis called him an idiot and after that didn't say a word for two days es, protams, biju idiots; man nevajadzēja šurp braukt! — I, of course, was an idiot; I shouldn't have come here!
Synonyms: (of "mentally undeveloped") debils (adjective), imbecils (adjective), (of "fool", "stupid") duraks, muļķis, neprātis, stulbenis
related terms:
  • idiotija
ielasmeita etymology From ielas ‘street[genitive]’ + meita ‘daughter, girl’.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. streetwalker, prostitute a woman who sells sex, especially one who looks for clients on the streets tas bija kāds no Berlīnes nomaļu naktsvazaņķu un kokaīnistu kaktiem... pie galdiem sēdēja pāris ielasmeitas — that was one of Berlin's tramps' and cocaine addict's corners... at the table a couple of streetwalkers, prostitutes were seated
Synonyms: (vulgar) mauka, prostitūta
iesist etymology From ie + sist. pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to drive in, hit, strike so that something go into something else exampleiesist naglu dēlī to drive a nail into a log (by hitting it, e.g. with a hammer) exampleiesist mietu zemē to drive a pole into the ground (by hitting it) exampleiesist bumbu vārtos to drive the ball into the (soccer) goal (by kicking it) exampleiesist vārtus to score a goal (lit. to drive, hit a goal in) exampleiesist volejbola bumbu tīklā to drive the volleyball into the net examplevējš iesit krusu sejā the wind drives the hail into (one's) face examplemilzis muļķīti iesit līdz ceļiem zemē the giant drove the fool into the ground up to his knees (by hitting him)
  2. (colloquial) to obtain (especially money, profit) exampleiesist naudu to get (lit. drive in) money exampleja varēja sev iesist peļņu, neko nežēloja if he could score (lit. drive in) a profit, he didn't spare any (efforts) examplepārdod olas, lai iesistu vēl kādu santīmu (she) sells eggs in order to get (lit. drive in) an extra cent
  3. (often with dative complement) to hit, strike, give a sudden blow (to someone, something) exampleiesist sunim to hit, to kick the dog exampleiesist ar āmuru pa prikstiem to hit (someone) on the fingers with a hammer exampleviņš man iesita ar knipi pa degunu he hit me with a flick on the nose (= he gave me a flick on the nose) examplear saliektu kreiso roku zibenīgi iesitu uzbrucējam pakrūtē with (my) left arm bent I gave a lightning punch on the attacker's chest examplemāte iesita pļauku Aijas paziņam mother slapped (lit. hit her hand (against)) Aija's friend
  4. to hit, strike to create something (e.g., a hole, a dent) witg a blow on a surface exampleiesist krūzē robu to make (lit. hit) a crack on a mug exampleiesist metālā iedobumu to make (lit. hit) a dent, cavity on metal
  5. to hit, strike to have a sudden strong effect on something exampleklusām atvēru durvis... gaisma man iesita pierē silently I opened the dor... the light hit me on the forehead examplesūtstoša, degoša sāpe viņai iesit pa pirkstiem a sore, burning pain hit her on the fingers
iet etymology The infinitive and present tense forms come from Proto-Baltic *ey-t(e)i, from Proto-Indo-European *ey, *h₁ey- 〈*h₁ey-〉 (the old athematic present tense forms *eimu, *iemu, etc. were lost and replaced with new forms derived directly from *ey). The past tense forms come from Proto-Baltic *gā-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷā-, *gʷeh₂- 〈*gʷeh₂-〉, from which also Lithuanian góti, English come). Cognates include Lithuanian eiti, Prussian eisei, eit, xsv ejd (< *eit), Proto-Slavic *jьti 〈*jʹti〉, *jьdǫ 〈*jʹdǫ〉 (Russian идти 〈idti〉, иду 〈idu〉, Church Slavic ити 〈iti〉, идѫ 〈idѫ〉, Belarusian ісці 〈íscí〉, Ukrainian іти 〈íti〉, Bulgarian ида 〈ida〉, Czech jíti, Polish iść, archaic ), Hittite i-, Sanskrit एति 〈ēti〉, Ancient Greek εἶμι 〈eîmi〉, Latin īre, eo, it.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}, {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of iet
  2. lv-inflection of iet
  3. (with the particle ''lai'') lv-inflection of iet
  4. (with the particle ''lai'') lv-inflection of iet
{{lv-verb}}
  1. to go, to walk to displace oneself by walking iet kājām — to go on foot lēni, ātri iet — to go slowly, fast iet streidzīgā gaitā — to go in a hurried pace iet lieliem soļiem — to go, walk with big steps iet pa ceļu, cauri mežam — to go on the road, through the forest iet no istabas ārā — to go out of the room iet taisni uz priekšu — to go straight ahead iet sešus kilometrus stundā — to go, walk at 6 km per hour iet rikšos, rikšiem — to trot (a horse) iet soļos, soļiem — to go in easy stems (a horse)
  2. (often with prom, projām “away”) to leave, to go away cilvēki nāk un iet — people come and go ja nu viņa paliek, tad varu arī iet — if she stays, then I can go, too iet projām no tēva mājām — to leave (one's) father's house iet projām no dzīves — to leave, go away from life (= to die)
  3. to go somewhere, for a purpose, on foot or in a vehicle iet ciemos — to go visit (someone) iet pusdienās — to go for lunch iet uz kino — to go to the movies iet sēnēs — to go after mushrooms nav kur iet — (s/he has) nowhere to go iet atvaļinājumā — to go on vacation iet palīgā, talkā — to go help, to the rescue iet gulēt — to go to sleep iet pensijā — to retire (lit. to go to retirement) iet uzbrukumā — to attack (lit. to go to attack) iet uz fronti — to go to the front iet armijā — to go to the army (= to become a soldier) iet ļaudīs, dzīvē — to go to people, to life (i.e., to make an effort to contact people, to not be alone) iet nāvē — to go to death (= to a situation of high risk of death)
  4. (colloquial, usually braukt) to go with a vehicle nākošajā reisā laikam iesim uz Kubu — in (our) next trip, maybe we will go to Cuba
  5. to go somewhere regularly, to do something iet darbā, skolā — to go to work, to school iet savās gaitās — to go at his own pace (= to go do his duties)
  6. (with ceļu “way”) to go forward in some direction iet tālu ceļu — to go a long way iet savu, citu ceļu — to go his own, someone else's, way iet' taisnu ceļu — to go a straight way (= to act honestly)
  7. (of feet, legs) to go, to move so as to go kad jau nav galvas, tad neiet arī kājas — when there is no head, then the feet also don't go (= move) skatities, jauni puiši, kā meitām kājas gāja — look, young boys, how the girls' legs were going
  8. (usually, in 3rd person; of birds, fish) to go, to fly, to swim iet siļķu bari — schools of herring are going (= swimming, moving) vai tu dzirdi, vai tu dzirdi, šonakt zosis projām iet — do you hear, do you hear, tonight the geese are going (= flying) away
  9. (with an infinitive verb) used to reinforce the meaning of a verb; to go (do something) bijis skatīties mēnesi... cik naivi meli! kur tas dzirdēts, ka ietu kāds celties augšā no siltas gultas, lai ārā, saltumā, blenztu uz mēnesi? — I've seen the moon... what naive lies! who says (lit. has heard) that someone would go get up from his warm bed in order to go outside, in the cold, to stare at the moon? ej nu sazinigo figure (expressing doubt) ej nu sazini, kas dažreiz ir laime, kas nelaime!go figure, what sometimes is happiness, (and) what (is) unhappiness!
  10. (of vehicles) to go, to move; (syn. aiziet) to depart vilciens iet ātri — the train goes fast lidmašīna līdz galvaspilsētai iet vienu stundu — the airplaine goes to the capital in one hour kapteiņa Vasnieka kuģis neies jūrā, jo kapteinis izguļ paģiras — Captain Vasnieks' ship will not go into the sea, because the Captain has a hangover vilciens ies pēc 10 minūtēm — the train will go (= depart) in 10 minutes motorlaiva uz Pērnavu gāja rīta pusē — the motor boat to Pärnu went (= departed) in the morning
  11. (of objects) to go, to move, to be in motion baļķi iet pa upi — the logs go on the river vējā smiltis iet pa gaisu — in the wind, the sand goes in the air bumba iet pāri laukuma sānu līnijai — the ball is going over the field's side line
  12. (in the 3rd person, of mechanisms, especially clocks) to run, to work pulkstenis iet precīzi — the clock is running well (lit. precisely) pulkstenis iet par ātru — the clock is running fast pulkstenis iet par lēnu — the clock is running slow traktors iet kā pulkstenis — the tractor runs, works like a clock
  13. (in the 3rd person, of time periods, life) to go, to go by, to pass, to go on stundas iet — hours go by iet uz pavasara pusi — it is going on (= getting to be) half spring pulkstenis iet uz vieniem — the clock is going on one (= it is getting close to one o'clock) kā saule riet un mēness riet, tā mūžs uz beigu stundu iet — as the sun sets and the moon (also) sets, so does life go to the final hour bet nu, kad mūžs jau gājis otrā pusē, / aizvien biežak Tebra prātā nāk — but now that life has already gone to the other side (= more than half of my life has passed), Tebra comes to (my) mind increasingly more often
  14. (of natural phenomena; usually 3rd person) to go to move, to happen in a certain way mākoņi iet — the clouds are going, moving mēness iet — the moon is going, moving ledus iet — ice is going, moving (said about ice being moved by water during floods)
  15. (in the 3rd person) to go, to be assign to (a purpose, a goal), to have a certain fate no kopēja izvesto preču daudzuma apmēram 11 procenti iet eksportam — of the total amount of goods produced about 11 percent goes for export (= is exported) ražošanas procesā daļa materiālu iet atkritumos — in the process of production, a part of the materials goes to waste pavasarī dzīvniekiem iet nost vecā spalvā — in spring animals' old fur goes away (= comes off, is lost) pārsauļotā āda vēlāk iet nost — sunburnt skin later goes away (= comes off)
  16. (of some events, processes) to go, to become (in a certain way) iet vairumā — to increase (lit. to go to increase) iet mazumā — to decrase (lit. to go to decrase) iet uz augšu — to improve (lit. to go upward) iet uz leju — to become worse (lit. to go down) iet plāšumā — to expand (lit. to go to expansion) iet uz labo pusi — to improve (lit. to go to the good side) iet uz slikto pusi — to become worse (lit. to go to the bad side) iet uz beigām — to finish, to end (lit. to go to the end) iet uz galu — to finish, to end (lit. to go to the end) iet savu gaitu — to act independently (lit. to go his own walk) elle iet vaļā — hell is going free (= something bad is happening fast)
  17. (in the 3rd person) to go (to be dispose via, to be realize}} visi norēķini iet caur krājkasi — all payments go through the savings bank formalitātes es paguvu jau nokārtot; vajadzīgs vēl tikai jūsu paraksts... oficiāli automašīna, protams, iet caur komisijas veikalu — I managed to get the formalities settled; only your signature is still necessary... officially the car, of course, goes through the commission store
  18. (in the 3rd person) to go, to be place in, to fit skapis neiet istabā iekšā — the wardrope doesn't go inside the room nagla viegli iet sienā — the nail goes easily into the wall mucā iet 100 litru — 100 liters go into the barrel (= it fits 100 liters) vai jaunie cimdi iet rokā? — do the new gloves go in (= fit) (your) hand(s)? zābaki neiet kājās — the boots don't go on (= don't fit) (my) feet mētelis tikko iet mugurā — the coat barely goes on (my) back (= barely fits me)
  19. (of mail, letters; in the 3rd person) to go, to be sent}} telegrammas iet ātri — telegrams go fast vēstule ies pāris dienu — the letter will go a couple of days (= it will take a couple of days for it to reach its destination)
  20. (of news; in the 3rd person) to go, to spread, to become know par viņiem rakstīja frontes avīzes, bet pirmajās līnijās no mutes mutē gāja viņu leģendārā slava — the front newspapers wrote about him, but above all his legendary fame went from mouth to mouth iet runa — a rumor is going (= there is a rumor)
  21. (of paths, roads, rails, lines, doors) to go to be located so as to lead in a certain direction redzi tur pretī, augšā tos stabus? aiz tiem iet lielceļš — do you see those poles over there, above? behind them goes the highway tālu aiz siliem un gāršām ceļš iet augšā un lejā pa senjūras krastu — far beyond the coniferous forests the road goes up and down by the coast of the old sea robeža iet taisni starp abām dzīvojamām ēkām — the border goes right between these two buildings durvis pa kreiso roku ved sānu istabā, otras durvis dibenā iet uz āru — the door on the left hand leads to the side room, the other door goes out
  22. (of films, plays; in the 3rd person) to be show, present “šodien kinoteatrī iet “Parmas klosteris,”” viņa ierunājās sērīgi... “bet mēs jau netiekam...” — “today (the film) “The Monastery of Parma” is going (= is being shown) at the cinema,” she said mournfully... “but we won't make it (in time)...”
related terms:
  • eja
  • iela
imbecils etymology Ultimately a Borrowing from Latin imbēcillus (literally “without a staff”), probably via some other European language.
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. imbecile having serious problems in mental development imbecils bērnsimbecile child
  2. (colloquial, offensive) stupid, fool es arī esmu imbecils — I am an imbecile, too tu esi acīmredzami imbecils — you are obviously an imbecile
Synonyms: debils, idiotisks
kaklasaite {{slim-wikipedia}} Alternative forms: kakla saite etymology From kakla ‘neck[genitive]’ + saite ‘link, tie’.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. necktie zīda kaklasaite — silk necktie gaiša, tumša, pulķota kaklasaite — light, dark, flowered necktie apsiet kaklasaiti — to tie a necktie
Apparently, kaklasaite is less colloquial, and thus more frequent in written Latvian, than šlipse. Synonyms: (colloquial form) šlipse
kāpēc etymology From ‘what[genitive]’ + pēc ‘after; for’. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
adverb: {{lv-adv}}
  1. (in questions involving cause, motive, purpose, answerable with jo “because”) why? for what reason? for what purpose? kāpēc tu nenāc?why aren't you coming? kāpēc darbs nav izdarīts?why isn't the work done? kāpēc viņš ir noskumis?why is he sad? kāpēc jūs aizejat? es taču nedzenu jūs”, Līvja skarbi iesmējās — “why are you leaving? I'm not driving you away,” Līvja laughed harshly kāpēc gan Ilga nepieņemtu viņa pasniegto roku? vai tad viņai nav vajadzīgs dzīvoklis? vai tad viņa negrib mācīties?why didn't Ilga take the hand he (had) offered? maybe she didn't need an apartment? or maybe she didn't want to study? kāpēc es visu to rakstu?... tāpēc, ka es ilgojos un slāpstu dzīvības un dzīveswhy am I writing all this? because
  2. (in rhetorical questions, indicating something unnecessary, or which is not the case) why?, oh why? kāpēc iet, ja varam braukt!why go (on foot), if we can go (by car)? kāpēc Brīviņos nevar būt divdesmit pieci slaucami lopi?why can't there be 25 dairy cows in Brīviņi? (the speaker is annoyed)
Synonyms: kādēļ, kālab
antonyms:
  • jo
related terms:
  • tāpēc
conjunction: {{head}}
  1. why; used to introduce subordinate clauses indicating cause, motive, purpose, and relating to elements of the main clause with various different functions: (a) subject: nav saprotams, kāpēc viņš tā runā — it is not clear why he talks like that viņiem te jāzina viss, kādi mēs esam un kāpēc neko nedarām — they had to know everything, what we are and why we do nothing jaunajam cilvēkiemm ne prātā neienāca, kāpēc meitene tik labi atceras vēstuļu skaitu — (the reason) why the girl remembered the number of letters so well didn't enter into the new guy's mind (b) (secondary) predicate, attributive complement: grūti uztvert stāsta galveno ideju, mērķi, kāpēc tās radīts — it was difficult to perceive the story's main idea, the target (= reason) why it was created (c) direct object (e.g., reporting a question) es nezinu, kāpēc viņš nenāk — I don't know why he isn't coming pajautāšu, kāpēc viņš raud — I will ask why he is crying tagad sapratu arī to, kāpēc' pie mājas nav pasta kastītes, kāpēc logos aizkaru vietā dzeltē papīri, kāpēc te tāds klusums... un kāpēc neviens no šejienes nav aicināts kažās — then I understood why at (those) houses there are no mail boxes, why on the windows there is yellowish paper instead of curtains... and why nobody from here was invited to the wedding
  2. (colloquial, syn. tāpēc) because; used to link two relatively independent sentence components meži gadu aiz gada tika tālāk izcirsti, kāpēc katru gadu meža cirtējiem bija jānocilpo aizvien garāks gabals — the forests are being further and further cut down, because every ear the lumbermen had to cover a longer (= larger) piece (of territory)
Synonyms: kādēļ, kālab
kaza {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology Apparently a Borrowing from Russian коза: note that the words for “male goat” and “female goat” in Latvian are non-cognate (āzis and kaza), unlike other Baltic languages (Lithuanian ožỹs 〈ožỹs〉, ožkà; Prussian wosux, wosee), which suggests that an earlier Latvian term, perhaps *āze (apparently present in place names like Āzes), was replaced by the borrowed kaza.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. goat esp. Capra aegagrus hircus mājas kazas — domestic goats kalnu kazas — mountain goats kazu vilnagoat wool kazas bārdagoat beard
  2. female goat kazu piensgoat milk kazu siersgoat cheese slaukt kazu — to milk the goat
  3. (colloquial) unruly, flippant, frivolous girl or woman
klitors {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology Via some other European language, ultimately from Ancient Greek κλειτορίς 〈kleitorís〉, a diminutive of uncertain origin, probably from κλείω 〈kleíō〉, in reference to its being covered by the labia minora. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) clitoris female organ of sexual stimulation, situated on the upper part of the labia majora sievietes, sieviešu klitors — female, women's clitoris mazs, liels klitors — small, large clitoris klitora stimulēšana — stimulation of the clitoris klitora erekcija un orgasmsclitoral erection and orgasm kā atrast sievietes klitoru? — how to find a woman's clitoris?
Synonyms: (colloquial term) kuteklis
kosmisks etymology From kosmoss + isks. Probably not derived as such in Latvian, but borrowed and adapted from another European language.
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. cosmic, spatial relating to the cosmos, to outer space kosmiskais starojumscosmic radiation kosmiskie staricosmic rays kosmisks (lid)aparāts, kuģisspacecraft kosmiskā telpacosmic space, outer space kosmiskā tehnikaspace technology kosmiskie putekļicosmic dust, stardust kosmiskā medicīnaaerospace medicine kosmiskā raķetespace rocket kosmiskā stracijaspace station
  2. (figuratively, colloquial) very large, very fast, very intense kosmiskos tempos — at cosmic (= very high) speed, rhythm kosmiski labs videocosmically (= very) good video
kost etymology From *kansti, from Proto-Baltic *kond-t(e)i, from an form *kond- of Proto-Indo-European *ken- (whence also kniest, q.v.) with an extra -d. Cognates include Lithuanian ką́sti, Proto-Slavic *kǫdsъ 〈*kǫdsʺ〉 (Church Slavic кѫсъ 〈kѫsʺ〉, Russian кус 〈kus〉, кусать 〈kusatʹ〉, Bulgarian късам 〈kʺsam〉, Czech kousati, Polish kąsać), Sanskrit खादति 〈khādati〉, Ancient Greek κνώδων 〈knṓdōn〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to bite, to take a bite to use one's teeth to press, to cut off a piece of something kost maizes kumosu — to bite (off) a mouthfull of bread kost riekstu — to bite a nut, to break its shell with one's teeth kost auklu, diegu ar zobiem — to bite (= cut) a string, a cord with (one's) teeth desu koda, Pāvils no viena gala, Roberts no otra — they bit the sausage, Pāvils from one end, Roberts from the other Baiba kož maizi pa mazam gabaliņam, lai ilgāk pietiktu — Baiba bites the bread in small bites, so that it lasts longer smeikli kaklu nelauzīs, bez zobiem riekstu nekodīs — laughter won't break (one's) neck, without teeth (one) won't bite (= break open) a nut
  2. to bite in to press, to sink one's teeth into something kost tomātā, ābolā — to bite (in) a tomato, an apple Andris kāri kož biezajā sviestmaizē — Andris bit (in) the thick sandwich with appetite
  3. to bite, to chew to reduce (usually food) to pieces with one's teeth Julcīte savu cukura gabaliņu iemet mutē un kož kraukšķinādama un tīksminādamās — Julcīte threw her sugar cube into (her) mouth and bit, chewed, crunching and enjoying it kaza kož lapas ar saviem asajiem zobiem — the goat is biting, chewing leaves with its sharp teeth
  4. (colloquial) to eat a little, to have a bite viņa no rīta nav kumosu kodusi — she hasn't had a bite (= anything to eat) since morning
  5. to bite to be able to bite; to sink one's teeth into something in order to hurt or kill; (of insects) to sting čūska kož — the snake bites svešs zvērs var pēkšņi kost — a strange animal may suddenly bite vilks koda avis — the wolf bit the sheep kostas brūcesbitten wounds (i.e., wounds from bites) odi, blusas, dunduris kož — mosquitoes, fleas, horseflies bite mušas koda kā trakas — the flies bit like crazy visu nedēļu dunduri koduši miesu — all week the horseflies have been biting (our) flesh
  6. (figuratively, of hard, sharp objects) to cause sudden sharp pain vajadzēs tev savaldīties: ganu rīkstes kož — you will have to be careful: the shepherd's rod bites (= hurts)
  7. (figuratively, of words, thoughts) to cause sudden discomfort visvairāk kremt un kož tā aušīgā iedoma — that flighty whim gnaws and bites most of all
  8. (of cold or hot weather) to bite to freeze] or heat so much that they no longer grow salnas kosta bērza lapa, ziedus — the frosts bit the birch leaves, the flowers saulstaru kosta zāle — sun(rays)-bitten grass
  9. (of time, rust) to damage or destroy slowly rūsa nespēj kost — rust won't be able to bite it laika kostais kuršu zobens — time-bitten (worn-out) Curonian sword
  10. to bite to cause a sore, burning sensation sinepes kož mēlē — must bites the tongue dūmi sāka kost acīs un kaklā — the smoke started biting in the eyes and throat sviedri ritēja pāri pierei un koda acīs — the sweat ran past (his) forehead and bit in (his) eyes laukā asi koda sals — outside, the frost bit sharp vaigos kož sals, un sniegs jautri gurkst zem zābaku zolēm — the frost bit in the cheeks, and the snow crunched under the boot soles rupji krekli kož ādā — coarse shirts bite the skin
  11. (of bright lights, colors) to bite to cause a feeling of pain in the eyes lielās dzīvsudraba spuldzes ir tik spilgtas, ka kož acīs — the large mercury lamps are so bright that they bite in the eyes lakats bija jauns un košs, par daudz košs, koda acīs — the scarf was new and bright, too bright: it bit in the eyes
  12. (of tools, blades) to be sharp when in use, to cut well zāģis koda labi — the saw bit (= cut) well jūsu gudrība ka truls nazis: spīdēt spīd, bet nekož — your wisdom (is) like a dull knife: it does shine, but it doesn't bite (= doesn't cut)
  13. to bite to press one's teeth, usually expressing tension kost zobus lūpā — to bite (lit. to bite one's teeth) in(to) one's lip meitene koda lūpā, līdz tā kļuva balta — the girl bit her lip until it became white
  14. to bite to make something, usually a gap, hole, etc., with one's teeth Kains gurķa auglī dižu robu kodīs — Kains will bite a big hole in the cucumber plant
related terms:
  • kodīt
  • košļāt
kukainis {{slim-wikipedia}} {{ picdic }} etymology Derived with the suffix + ains (and made into a masculine 2nd-declension noun in -is) from an old verb *kukt, from Proto-Baltic *kuk-, from Proto-Indo-European *kew-, *kū-, *ku-. Alongside kukt, there are other verbs derived from the same stem that refer to ways of moving around: kukņāties (dialectal) “to huddle up, to roll up, to become entangled, to try to stand up,” kuknīties “to do something clumsily, to go with effort, to jostle, to hustle,” kūkurot “to drag oneself along, to trudge.” If these terms are semantically related to kukainis, then its original meaning was something like “(little) animal that creeps, trudges along, rolls up into a ball (e.g., when touched).” The word originally applied only to certain species of (usually harmful) insects; its meaning began expanding in the 18th century, but in the late 19th century it was still mostly applied only to winged insects. The extension to all insects was suggested by H. Kavals in the 1860s, and adopted by in his dictionary. Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal kukainis, kukainiai (probably borrowing from Latvian).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. insect, bug arthropod with a three-part body, three pairs of legs, sometimes also wings (class: Insecta); less specifically, also other kinds of arthropods, such as spiders asinssūcēji kukaiņi — blood-sucking insects indīgie kukaiņi — poisonous insects ūdens kukaiņi — aquatic (lit. water) insects lidojošie kukaiņi — flying insects bezspārnu kukaiņi — apterous (= wingless) insects nakts kukaiņi — nocturnal insects kaitīgie kukaiņi — harmful insects kukaiņu kāpuriinsect larvae kukaiņu dzēlumiinsect stings kukaiņa indeinsect poison kukaiņu klase — the (taxonomic) class Insecta kukaiņi ir vislielākā dzīvnieku klase, tajā ietilpst gandrīz trīs ceturtdaļas vispār pazīstamo suguinsects are the largest class of animals, in which almost three fourths of all known species are contained vasarā dabā mēs ik uz soļa sastopamies ar dažādiem kukaiņiem: gan krāšņie tauriņi, kas lido no zieda uz ziedu, gan veiklās spāres, gan sienāži, gan dažādas vaboles un mušas — in summer, in nature, we find various insects at every step: splendid butterflies flying from flower to flower, agile dragonflies, grasshoppers, various beetles and flies bērns bija netīrs un pilns kukaiņiem — the child was dirty and full of insects (= parasites, lice)
  2. (colloquial, usually of people) being, creature un tu nāci pie briesmīgā Arka atvainoties? vai zini, tu gan esi viens jokains kukainis — and you came to the terrible Arks to apologize (to him)? you know, you are indeed one funny creature (lit. insect, bug)
kukainis is the usual term for “insect” in Latvian; its synonym insekts is rarer, and usually more academic or learned. Synonyms: insekts
kustonis etymology Derived from kustēt (or perhaps the original *kust) + onis. This word used to mean “insect” (today kukainis); its meaning was expanded in the 19th century, so that by the beginning of the 20th century it was a synonym of dzīvnieks.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. animal living being that feeds on organic matter and is capable of moving but not of abstract thinking kūts visiem kustoņiem ir kopēja... vienīgi katrai sugai ierādīts savs kakts — all animals have the barn in common... to every species its place (lit. corner) is shown
  2. (colloquial) parasite te ums, večiņ, būs mierīgāka dzīve... te jūs nebūsiet nevienam pa kājām un neaplaidisiet arī visus ar saviem kustoņiempie sienām izkārtas gleznas ar visādiem zvēriem, putniem un čūskām... kādu tik pasaulē nav to kustoņu! — on the wall, paintings with all kinds of animals, birds and snakes were hanging... how many of these animals there are in our world!
Synonyms: (animals in general) dzīvnieks, (insects) kukainis, (farm animals) lops, (wild animals) zvērs
related terms:
  • kustēt, kustēties
  • kustība
  • kustīgs, kustīgums
kuteklis etymology From kutēt + eklis. The sense of "clitoris" is analogous to, and possibly calqued from, German Kitzler (compare also Dutch kittelaar).
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. tickler, object for tickling, caress pūkainais kuteklis — fluffy tickler
  2. (anatomy, colloquial) clitoris, clit female organ of sexual stimulation, situated on the upper part of the labia majora kaunums, kuteklis un jaunavības plēve — pubic region, clitoris and hymen kuteklis ir pati jutīgākā sievietes ķermeņa daļa — the clitoris, clit is the most sensitive part of a woman's body
Synonyms: klitors
ķemmēt etymology From ķemmē, a borrowing from Low German, made into a second conjugation verb stem (ending -ēt). Alternatively, it may be a direct Borrowing from gml (cf. German kämmen). First mentioned in 17th-century sources.{{R:lv:LEV|ķemme}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. of people's hair to comb to smooth with a comb ķemmēt matus — to comb (one's) hair ķemmēt pie spoguļa matus — to comb one's hair by the mirror kandidāts bija nedaudz pāri labākajiem gadiem, vairākas dienas neķemmētiem pelēkiem matiem — the nominee was a little over his better years, with hair many days uncombed
  2. (of animal hair, fur) to comb to smooth, also to clean, with a comb ķemmēt suni — to comb the dog ķemmēt zirgam krēpes — to comb the mane of the horse
  3. (colloquial, especially military) to comb to search thoroughly fašisti gatavojās ķemmēt mežu — the fascists are preparing to comb the forest ciemā jau iet žandarmu ķēde, ķemmēdama māju pēc mājas; meklē vīriešus — in the village a chain (= group) of gendarmes is going (around), combing house after house; they are looking for (certain) men
Synonyms: sukāt
related terms:
  • ķemme
lai etymology Traditionally, lai is derived from the imperative form of the verb laist (quod vide): laidlai, an evolution reminiscent of Russian пускай 〈puskaj〉, пусть 〈pustʹ〉 from пускать 〈puskatʹ〉. The form laid is indeed attested as a conjunction in the earliest sources. This view, however, has been recently criticized on the basis that Latvian lai, Lithuanian lai are clearly related to Prussian -lai, which is added to (usually infinitive) verbs to indicate volitive or conditional mood. This suggests a Proto-Baltic form *lai, probably related to the final -le of Latvian reinforcing particles jele ~ jel, nule, and (dialectal) nele, and to Prussian -le, apparently a variant of -lai. This *le would then have the same origin as Proto-Slavic *li (compare Polish li Russian ли 〈li〉), with cognates in other languages (Albanian, Tocharian) from a basic Proto-Indo-European *l-. After this criticism, the relationship between lai and laist has become unclear. Maybe Proto-Indo-European *l- was an old verb, or maybe laist was derived from an older particle.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
conjunction: {{head}}
  1. with the conditional, indicating purpose, sometimes cause; sometimes correlating with tāpēc, tādēļ in the main clause; so that, in order to, in order that lai varētu labāk pārredzēt apkārtni, bija jāuzkāpj tornīin order to be able to see the surroundings better, it was necessary to climb the tower kad viņa, laimīgi smiedamās, pacēla savu glāzi, lai saskandinātu ar viesiem, es noraudzījos ar klusu skaudību — when she, laughing happily, lifted her glass, in order to clink glasses with the visitors, I watched with quiet envy gājējiem jāraugās, lai dēļa vaļējais gals neiesistu pa pieri — the passers-by must be careful, so that the free end of the log does not hit them on the forehead apģērbam un apaviem jābūt ērtiem, lai tie netraucētu kustības — clothes and shoes must be comfortable, so that they don't disturb (one's) movement kafiju nedrīkst vārīt, lai tā nezaudētu aromātu — coffee should not be boiled, so that it doesn't lose its aroma es mācos tikai tāpēc, lai labāk noderētu lielajā cīņā — I learn only so that I can serve better in the great fight studēt es gribu tikai tādēļ, lai pati vairāk zinātu un lai iegūtās zināšanas varētu atdot citiem — I want to study only so that I will know more and so that the knowledge gained can be given to others
  2. indicating concession, especially in the combinations lai gan, lai arī; though, although, even though lai cīņas būs grūtas, mēs uzvarēsimthough the fight will be difficult, we will win un, lai ļaudis sacījuši ko sacīdami, jaunā sieva katru sliktu vārdu atvairījusi — and, although the people said what(ever) they wanted, the young wife deflected every bad word pēc teātra Vilis Virpuls palika uz deju, lai gan nekad nedejoja — after the theater Vilis Virpuls stayed at the dance, even though he never danced viņš atbrauca ātri, lai gan ceļš bija slikts — he came quickly, although the road was bad lai arī dārzs ir mazliet nolaists, tas tomēr ir skaistsalthough the garden is a little neglected, it still is beautiful
  3. indicating strong concession, in combination with arī, nu, vai and with interrogative pronouns like cik, kāds, kurš, kas, kur; no matter how, which, who, what, where; however, wherever, whichever, whoever, whatever, wherever viņa bija viņam iedvesusi ticību, ka viņš skatīs sauli, lai arī cik grūti būtu pašreiz — she had inspired in him the belief that he would look at the sun, no matter how difficult this would be now mēs visi būsim kopā, lai kā mums kuram ies — we will all be together, no matter how it goes for us lai vai kā, es tomēr runāšuno matter how (= whatever happens), I will still speak lai kur kāds runā, viņš tūdaļ pretī ar savuwherever someone speaks, he immediately (goes) against him with his (words, opinions) lai nu tālu, tomēr kādos svētkos raudzīšu attikthowever far (it may be), I will still try to be at the celebration
  4. after certain verbs, introducing a direct object clause; that, for ... to, to zīlītes vairs negaidīja, lai Ilzīte viņas baro — the titmouses no longer waited for Ilzīte to feed them nē, viņa lūdza, lai es apturu mašīnu — no, she asked that I stop the car vai nevajadzētu paziņot, lai atbrauc viņa piederīgie? — couldn't (you) have informed (us) that his people would come back? bērnu stomatoloģiskajā poliklīnikā galvenokārt rūpējas par to, lai zobi tiktu savlaicīgi salaboti — in the children's dental clinic, one cares primarily that the (children's) teeth will be repaired in time
  5. indicating manner and/or purpose, usually correlating with an adverb like in the main clause; so that, such that, in such a way that runā, lai var ko saprast — speak so that (= in such a way that) one can understand something lampu novietu tā, lai gaisma krīt no augšas un kreisās puses — the lamp (is) placed in such a way that the light falls from the top and (from) the left side tu centies to pateikt saudzīgi, tā, lai mani nesāpinātu — you try to say it gently, in such a way that it won't hurt me
  6. indicating consequence, especially with tik, pārāk and an adjective or participle in the main clause; so that, so ... that, too (much) ... for, to, that pie debesīm stāvēja pusmēness, izplatīdams pietiekošu krēslu, lai celiņu uz riju varētu redzēt — on the sky (there) was a half moon, spreading enough light (lit. dawn), so that one could see the little path to the barn aitas bijušas tik vājas, lai vējš apgāztu — the sheep were so weak that the wind (would) turn them over zemnieki bija pārāk iebaidīti, lai nakts laikā rādītos ārpus mājām — the peasants were too intimidated to show themselves outside during the night nebija vēl noadīti tik biezi cimdi, lai tagad, laukā braucot, nesaltu rokas — (one) had not yet knit such thick gloves that, going out now, (one's) hands wouldn't freeze
particle: {{head}}
  1. used to express an optative (wish) nuance: may, may it be that lai dabas spēkus gurds cilvēks veicmay the wise person lead the forces of nature lai visas dienas labus vārdus teicmay all days bring (lit. say) good words lai viss sils izdegtu!may the whole (pine) forest burn! lai dzīvo! — (long) may he live! hooray! tie ir trakāki par baroniem... velns lai viņus parauj! — those (people) are crazier than the barons... may the devil take them!
  2. used to express encouragement, agreement: let ja tu, Zane, nevari, lai paliek šovakar govis neslauktas — if you, Zane, can't (do it), let the cows remain unmilked tonight draugi mani atkal uzaicināja medībās: “labi”, es teicu, “lai notiek; bet pēdējo reizi!” — friends invited me again to hunt: “OK,” I said, “let it happen (= I'll go); but (for) the last time!”
  3. used to mark third person imperative forms of verbs; sometimes used with the first person also: let lai taču viņš iet”, Aina saka; “lai viņš iet, es arī neturēšu viņu, lai iet, lai iet” — “but let him go,” Aina said, “let him go, I also won't keep him, let (him) go, let (him) go” lai vēlam putnam laimīgu lidojumu!let us wish the bird a happy flight!
  4. used to give a nuance of indecision or doubt, especially in a question should, could ko lai viņam saku, kādu padomu lai dodu? — what should I say to him, what advice should I give? man vajadzīgs padoms; es nezinu, pie kā cita lai griežos — I need advice; I don't know who else I could turn to (but you) es prasu zemei, kur meklēt lai eju — I ask the earth, where should I go to look for (it)?
  5. (colloquial) used to add strength to a word or expression, to link it more tightly to the rest of the sentence Soklēns gribēja savus viesus uzjautrināt ar pajāšanos; segli lai bija iegādāti — Soklēns wanted to cheer his guests up with some (horse) riding; the saddles were even ready (already) vasarā, kad būs āboli, vai tad nāksi ciemos? ar medu lai pacienāšu, jā? — during the summer, when there will be apples, maybe then you will come visit? and I will also treat you with honey, yes?
  6. used to reinforce a word, highlighting it among others tūliņ svied tās meijas nost un meklē rīksti rokā! vai lopi līdz vakaram lai kūtī stāv? — throw those boughs away right now and go get your rod! are the animals really going to stay in the barn till night?
  7. used, sometimes with nu or ir, to indicate tolerance of, or agreement with, someone else protams, mājās būs vēl nepatīkamāka saruna, to es zinu pavisam skaidri, bet lai! — of course, at home there will still be an unpleasant talk, I know that very well, and how (= boy do I)! lai nu, lai nu, Birkenbaum,” Grīntāls mierināja — “OK, OK, Birkenbaum,” Grīntāls comforted (him) “esi gan tu muļķa meitene”, Karlīne zobojās; “a, lai ir!” Annele spītīgi atcirta — “you are indeed a stupid girl,” Karlīne mocked; “ah, so be it!” Annele snapped angrily back lai jau būtu — let it be, so be it
lidot etymology Originally the iterative form of *list, from Proto-Baltic *lid-ti, from the same stem as laist: Proto-Indo-European *leyd-, *līd-, *lid-. The synonyms lidot and laisties are therefore reflexes of the same original stem. The original meaning was probably “to let go,” from which “to fly.” In Indo-European languages, it is common that the notion “to fly” be expressed by a verb also meaning, or having previously meant, some other kind of motion: cf. Lithuanian lė̃kti, Latin volāre, Ancient Greek βάλλω 〈bállō〉. Cognates include Lithuanian lydúoti, Church Slavic лєтѣти 〈lêtѣti〉, Russian лететь 〈letetʹ〉, летать 〈letatʹ〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{audio}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (in 3rd person, of birds, insects) to fly to move in the air with the help of wings kaijas lido virs jūras — gulls fly over the sea spāre lido klusi — the dragonfly flies quietly sikspārņi lido krēslā — bats fly at dusk
  2. (of aircraft, their passengers) to fly to move in the air helikopters lido virs meža — the helicopter is flying over the forest modernās lidmašīnas lido ātri un augstu — modern airplanes fly fast and high Herta pirka biļeti, lai lidotu uz Rīgu — Herta bought a ticket to fly to Rīga
  3. (of projectiles) to fly to be thrown so as move quickly through the air šāviņi lidoja gar zemi un urbās kalnā kā lieli lemeši — the projectiles fly along the earth and dig into the hill like big plowshares
  4. (of people) to fly, to run to move quickly Mirdza negāja pa kāpnēm, viņa skrēja, lidoja un, elpu neatņēmusi, atrāva istabas durvis — Mirdza didn't go upstairs, she ran, she flew, and, without losing breath, tore the room door open
  5. (of light things) to fly to be carried by the air pāri kalnam veseliem klēpjiem lido pieneņu pūkas — dandelion fluff flies across the whole mountain sarkanas dzirksteles no ugunskura lido — red sparks flew from the fire
  6. (of lights, smells) to fly, to spread viegla smarža, saldi rūgta kā medus tvaiks, lidoja gaisā — a light odor, bittersweet as honey, flew in the air Veidenbaums runāja paklusu, tomēr vārdi lidoja kā bezdelīgas — Veidenbaums talked softly, but the words flew like swallows
  7. (figuratively, of news, information) to fly, to spread quickly vēstis lido vēja ātrumā — the news flies with the speed of the wind
  8. (figuratively, of looks, views) to fly, to turn to something far away skats lidoja līdzi putniem brīvā vaļā — the view flew' out freely with the birds
  9. (figuratively, of thoughts) to fly, to run viņa domas arī šovakar lido pie Ivas — her thoughts tonight also fly around Iva
  10. (figuratively, of time) to fly, to pass quickly gadi kā mākoņi lido, mūžībā aizslid un gaist — years fly like clouds, eternity slips and disappears
  11. (colloquial, of people) to behave very kindly to someone in order to win his or her favor cauru nedēļu ap viņu tiku lidojs — I have been flying around her (= a girl) the whole week
Synonyms: laisties
related terms:
  • lidaparāts
  • lidmašīna
  • lidosta
lielums etymology From liels + ums. pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. size, value, magnitude a property or set of properties expressed numerically in some measurement unit priekšmeta lielums — object size telpas lielums — room size ātruma lielums — speed value, magnitude ražas lielums — harvest size, yield rūpniecības produkcijas lieluma pieaugums — growth in the size of industrial production kapitālo ieguldījumu lielums — capital investment size, value dotais lielums — given, known value nezināmais lielums — unknown value vidējais artimētiskais lielums — arithmetic mean (lit. middle arithmetic value) vidējais ģeometriskais lielums — geometric mean (lit. middle geometric value) konstants, pastāvīgs lielums — constant value mainīgs lielums — variable value, variable samērojami, nesamērojami lielumi — commensurable, incommensurable quantities bezgalīgi liels lielums — infinitely large value, magnitude bezgalīgi mazs lielums — infinitely small, infinitesimal value, magnitude galīgs lielums — finite size, value
  2. (of clothes, shoes) size standard dimensions, usually identified by numbers kurpes bija sakārtotas pēc lielumiem — the shoes were ordered by size pieaugušiem vīriešiem visizplatītākais apģērba lielums ir 48 un 50 — in adult men, the most common clothes size is 48 and 50.
  3. (chiefly, in the singular) intensity, greatness sajūsmas, uztraukuma lielums — delight, excitement intensity lieluma mānija — megalomania (lit. greatness mania)
  4. (chiefly singular) greatness, importance Tēvijas kara lielums vēsturē ir nesalīdzināms — the greatness of the Patriotic war in history is incomparable laika lielumu, kurā dzīvojām, var apjaust un pareizi novērtēt — the greatness of the times in which we live can be comprehended and properly assessed
  5. (chiefly, in the singular) greatness outstanding positive qualities of a person ne jau rindu skaits nosaka dzejnieka lielumu, bet gan domu briedums, drosme un emocionālais spēks, kas ieslēpts vārsmās — not the number of lines shows the poet's greatness, but the maturity of thought, the courage and emotional strength, which lie hidden in the verses
  6. (colloquial) most, greater part lielums no pavasara ūdeņiem bija jau noskrējismost, the greater part of the spring waters had already run, flowed by
Synonyms: (of "greatness", "excellence") lieliskums, izcilība
maksts {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology From the same stem as maks (q.v.): Proto-Indo-European *mak-, with an extra suffix -t. Cognates include Lithuanian makštìs.{{R:lv:LEV|maks}} pronunciation {{audio}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) vagina maksts gļotādavaginal membrane maksts fizioloģijavaginal physiology
  2. sheath, scabbard, holster izvilkt zobenu no maksts — to draw a sword from its sheath iebāzt zobenu makstī — to put a sword in its sheath revolvera maksts — revolver holster
Synonyms: (of "vagina") vagīna (standard), peža (vulgar)
mauka etymology Maybe related to maukt. pronunciation {{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial, derogatory, vulgar) indecent, dissolute woman; prostitute, whore mauku māja — bordello (lit. whorehouse) nosaukt par mauku — to call (someone) a prostitute, a whore pieķert vīrieti pie maukas — to nab a man at a prostitute('s house)
Synonyms: ielasmeita, prostitūta
mice
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) hat
  2. (colloquial) cap
  3. (colloquial) tucker
Synonyms: aube
mīksts Alternative forms: (dialectal forms) miksts, mīksns etymology From the past participle of an old (still dialectally attested) verb mīkt, mīkst, from Proto-Baltic *mink-, from Proto-Indo-European *menk-, *mn̥k-. The original meaning referred to the final state of things that one kneads or crushes (compare English verb squash and adjective squashy). Cognates include Lithuanian mìnkštas, Church Slavic мѧкъкъ 〈mѧkʺkʺ〉, Russian мягкий 〈mâgkij〉, Belarusian мякки 〈mâkki〉, Ukrainian м'який 〈m'âkij〉, Bulgarian мек 〈mek〉, Czech měkký, Polish miękki.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of objects, substances) soft relatively easy to bend, split, crush, etc.; made of such materials, substances mīksta mīkla, masasoft dough, mass mīksta koksnesoftwood mīksts metālssoft metal grāmata mīkstos vākos — paperback (lit. book in soft cover) mīksts zīmulissoft pencil (with lead that wears out quickly) gumija sasilstot kļūst mīksta — rubber becomes soft when heated mīksta augsnesoft soil mīksts māls, sniegssoft clay, snow mīksts ceļšsoft path mīkstais arumssoft plowing
  2. (of fabric, leather) soft flexible, not resistant, not strong, not twisted mīksts audums, paklājs, kažokssoft fabric, carpet, coat mīksta vate, aitādasoft sheepskin mīksti cimdisoft gloves mīkstas kurpessoft shoes mīksts pavedienssoft (not twisted) thread
  3. (of furniture, cushions, etc.) soft not resistant to pressure; pleasant, comfortable mīksts dīvāns, spilvenssoft sofa, pillow mīksts krēsls, matracissoft chair, matras mīkstas mēbelessoft furniture
  4. (of means of transportation) provide with soft seat or bed mīkstais vagonssoft train car mēs braucām naktī ar mīksto autobusu no Debinas — we traveled at night with the soft bus from Debina
  5. (of folds in clothes) soft, not sharp mīkstas krokas, mīksti krokojumisoft folds
  6. (of events, processes, actions) soft happening without much resistance gājēju kājas mīksti grimst sniegā — the feet of the passers-by sink softly in the snow
  7. (of living tissues, body parts, plants) soft relatively easy to bend, squeeze mīkstie' audisoft tissues mīksts kaulssoft bone mīkstās aukslējassoft palate mīksts stublājs, graudssoft stem, grain mīkstie kviešisoft wheat mīksta sūnasoft moss
  8. (of skin) soft not hard, not harsh mīksta sejas ādasoft facial skin rokas tev ir gluži mīkstas — your hands are really soft
  9. (of hair or feathers, of animals having hair or feathers) soft really delicate, fine mīksti matisoft hair mīksts' cālēnssoft chick, poussin kucēna mīkstā spalva — a puppy's soft fur
  10. (colloquial, of people, body parts) plump, slightly overweight konditorejā aiz letes sēdēja un adīja apaļa, mīksta dāma — in the patisserie behind the counter (there) was a round, soft (= overweight) lady sitting and knitting
  11. (of food) soft easy to bite and chew mīksta gaļa, maizesoft meat, bread mīksts siers, ābolssoft cheese, apple mīksta olasoft egg (only slightly boiled)
  12. (of people, their character, will) soft, weak mans raksturs vēl nav norūdījies, tas vēl mīksts kā vasks — my character is not yet seasoned, it is still soft as wax priekšsēdētāja vietnieks tomēr izrādījās par mīkstu un neuzņēmīgu radikāliem pasākumiem — the vice-president, however, turned out to be soft and resistant to radical measures
  13. of behavior, actions soft relatively moderate, not harsh, forgiving, gentle mīksts sodssoft penalty, punishment atrast mīkstākus vārdus — to find softer words
  14. of sounds soft, low mīksti soļisoft steps mīksts, sievišķīgs tenorssoft, feminine tenor
  15. of lights soft, dim, not bright plaša un spilgta bija šī aina rietošās saules mīkstajā gaismā — spacious and bright was this picture in the soft light of the setting sun
  16. of weather mild, soft, pleasant (especially if unusual}} mīksta ziemamild winter mīksts vējšsoft wind
  17. of lines, forms, lights soft, not sharp, not clear, dim Anitas ēnas mīkstas līnijas — the soft lines of Anita's shadow mīksta tumsa, krēslasoft darkness, twilight māksliniekam raksturīgas arī mīkstas, smalkām niansēm bagatās pārejas no tumšā uz gaišo — typical of (this) artist are also soft transitions from dark to light, full of subtle nuances
  18. of water soft containing little or no salts, usually of calcium and magnesium vislabāk mazgāt matus mīksta ūdeņi — it is best to wash one's hair in soft water
  19. (rare, of sleep) soft, calm syn. ciešs mīksts miegs nāca šonakt Silmežam — a soft sleep came tonight to Silmežs
Synonyms: (of sleep) ciešs
antonyms:
  • (of "soft", including "soft water") ciets
mīkstums etymology From mīksts + ums.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. softness the quality of that which is soft mālu mīkstums — the softness of clay matu mīkstums — the softness of hair rakstura mīkstumssoftness of character ūdens mīkstums — water softness viņa iegrimst sēdekļa mīkstums līdz ausīm — she was absorbed into the softness of the seat to (her) ears
  2. soft part (of something) maizes mīkstumssoft part of bread (under the crust) zoba mīkstumssoft part of teeth, dental pulp atdalīt plūmes kauliņu no mīkstuma — to separate plum seed(s) from the pulp sagriezt gaļas mīkstumu šķēlēs — to cut the soft meat into slices (colloquial) dabūt pa mīkstumiem — to get on the soft parts (of one's bodies, i.e., to get a beating)
antonyms:
  • cietums, cietība
mobils etymology Via other European languages, ultimately a Borrowing from Latin mōbilis, from moveō. pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. mobile which can move, which can be moved relatively easily mobils transportlīdzeklismobile vehicle mobilas karaspēka daļasmobile army units mobilā elektriķu brigādemobile electrician team mobilais telefons, tālrunismobile phone dažādas, gan mobilas, gan stracionāras, mašīnas izstrādātas barības sadalei — several types of machines, both mobile and stationary, (were) designed for food distribution gan iebūvētie, gan mobilie skapji veido mikrotelpu — both built-in and mobile cabinets form a microspace (within a room) savvaļas brieži laikam ir mamutu līdzgaitnieki; bet tie bija mobilāki un paguva aizmukt no ledāju briesmām — wild deer are probably travel companions of the mammoths; but these (= deer) were more mobile and were able to escape from the dangers of the glaciers
  2. (colloquial, definite forms, used nominally) mobile phone vai man tiešam pieder mans mazcenas mobilais? — does my low-price mobile (phone) really belong to me?
Synonyms: kustīgs
nāvīgs etymology From nāve + īgs. pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. mortal, deadly, fatal which causes death; very dangerous to life nāvīgs ievainojumsfatal injury nāvīga gāzedeadly gas nāvīgi tvaikideadly fumes nāvīgs ierocismortal weapon
  2. (figuratively, colloquial) mortal; very serious, difficult nāvīgs ienaidnieksmortal enemy ar nāvīgu naidu balsī saka: “Paņemiet savas mantas un vācieties!” — with a voice of deadly hatred he said: “pick up your things and get going!” nāvīgi smagi eksāmeni šopavasar: materiālu pretestība, teorētiskā mehānika, augstākā matemātikamortally heavy (= hard, difficult) exams this spring: material resistance, theoretical mechanics, higher mathematics
Synonyms: nāvējošs
related terms:
  • nāvessods, nāves sods
  • nāvēt
  • nāvinieks, nāviniece
neprātīgs etymology From neprāts + īgs (with neprāts from ne + prāts). pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of people, their behavior) foolish, imprudent, unreasonable; express these qualities neprātīgs cilvēksfoolish, imprudent person neprātīga rīcībathoughtless action dzīve ir tik skopa un īsa, bet mēs esam tik neprātīgi, ka neprotam izlietot pat tos nedaudzos mirkļus, kas mums doti — life is so scarce and short, and we are so foolish that we don't know how to use even those few moments that we have been given cilvēks nezin kāpēc grib mūžīgu pavasari, nepadomādams nemaz, cik neprātīga tāda vēlēšanās — people for some reason want an eternal spring, not thinking about how foolish this desire is
  2. (of thoughts, ideas) foolish completely unfounded, untenable, impossible arī Martai gribējās iet skolā, mācīties, bet kalpa meitenei tolaik skola bija neprātīgs sapnis — also Martha wanted to go to school and study, but in those days school was a foolish dream for a servant girl
  3. (of people, their behavior) foolish, reckless, foolhardy daudz nedomādama, viņa bija ar mieru pamest Andreju un aiziet pie Kaspara: stiprā, neprātīgā — not thinking much, she was willing to leave Andrejs and go to Kaspars: (she was) strong, foolhardy jā, sievietes mīl neprātīgos, mīl Gēstu Berlingu, mīl Uldi — yes, the women love the reckless, foolhardy ones, they love Gēsts Berlings, they love Uldis viņa smadzenēs radās visneprātīgākās iztēles ainas — in his brains were the most foolish, reckless images
  4. (of people, their behavior) insane, mad having serious mental disorders plosăs kă neprātīgs — he kicks and screams like a madman neprātīga viņa skrēja mums pretim: “brālīti! brālīti! tu dzīvs!” — like a mad woman she ran towards us: “little brother! little brother! you (are) alive!” es, lai kā vēroju, nekādi nevarēju notvert, kur viņš būtu ko neprātīgu darījis vai runājis — no matter how much I watched, couldn't catch him where he would do or say something crazy
  5. (colloquial) extraordinary, excessive sākumā taksometra šoferis raudzījās pāri stūrei tik saspringti, it kā viņi neprātīgā ātrumā drāztos cauri miglai — at first the taxi driver looked over the steering wheel so tightly, as if they were slicing through the fog at an insane, excessive speed
Synonyms: (of "foolish", "stupid") dumjš, idiotisks, muļķīgs, stulbs, (of "insane", "mad") ārprātīgs, vājprātīgs, traks
related terms:
  • neprātība
  • neprātīgums
  • neprātis, neprāte
nez
particle: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial) use to add uncertainty or obscurity to statement
  2. (colloquial) use in combinations like nez vai, nez no kurienes, nez cik, nez kā and so on
ņemt etymology From the convergence of two dialectal forms, nemt and jemt, from Proto-Baltic *nem-, *yem-, two parallel forms ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *em-, *m-. The reason for the existence of two parallel forms is unclear. There are several hypotheses: two independent stems that merged in pre-Proto-Indo-European, irregular palatalization of an original n- to y-, an irregular perfect form ni-em that became an independent word, derivation with (e)n- “in,” etc. Cognates include (from the full form *em-) Latin emō, Old Irish arfo-emet; from the reduced form *m-, Lithuanian im̃ti (via Proto-Baltic *im), present imù, past ėmiaũ, dialectally present also jemù, emù, jamù, imiù, past imiaũ, jėmiaũ, Prussian imt, xsv emt (maybe *jemt?), Proto-Slavic *ęti, first person singular present *jьmǫ 〈*jʹmǫ〉 (Church Slavic ѩти 〈ѩti〉, first person singular present имѫ 〈imѫ〉, Russian dialectal ять 〈âtʹ〉, standard взять 〈vzâtʹ〉 “to take,” Ukrainian яти 〈âti〉 “to begin,” Czech jmout “to grab, to begin,” Polish jąć “to grab, to take”); with an initial n-, Gothic 𐌽𐌹𐌼𐌰𐌽 〈𐌽𐌹𐌼𐌰𐌽〉, Old High German nēman, German nehmen, Russian dialectal нять 〈nâtʹ〉 (cf. standard Russian prefixed forms like поднять 〈podnâtʹ〉), Ukrainian няти 〈nâti〉, Belarusian няць 〈nâcʹ〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}, {{lv-IPA}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to take to seize with one's hands for some purpose ņemt rokā lāpstu — to take the shovel with (lit. in) (one's) hands ņemt karoti un sākt ēst — to take the spoon and begin to eat ņemt adatu pirkstos — to take the needle with (lit. in) (one's) fingers ņemt bērnu pie rokas — to take the child by the hand ņem zīmuli un raksti!take the pen and write! ņem medu ar karotitake the honey with a spoon ņem ābolus no grozatake the apples from the basket ņemt nost cepuri — to take off (one's) hat ņemt griešanai asu nazi — to take a sharp knife for cutting ņemt grāmatu no bibliotēkas — to take a book from the library suns ņem kaulu zobos — the dog took the bone with (lit. in) (his) teeth Liene turēja roku izstieptu, bet Ernests vilcinājās paciņu ņemt — Liene kept her hand stretched, but Ernests hesitated to take the packet lūdzu, ņemiet vēl kādu konfekti! — please, take some more candy! karš spieda grāmatvedi ņemt rokās ieroci — war forced the accountat to take up arms (lit. to take a weapon in (his) hands)
  2. to take to accept, to enjoy ņemt dāvanas — to take, accept presents ņemt kukuļus — to take, accept bribes ņemt naudu — to take, accept money ņemt atvaļinājumu — to take a vacation ņemt saules vannas — to take a sunbath laimi jau vajag mācēt ņemt, dārgā, neviens to mums klāt nenesis — we have to know how to take, seize happiness, dear, nobody is going to bring it to us viņš savu atvaļinājumu gribēja ņemt februāra beigās — he wanted to take his vacation at the end of February trīs pāri apakšbikšu esmu pašuvis... bet nezinu, cik ņemt maksas — three pairs of underpants I have sewn... but I don't know, how (much) to take (as) payment, price gaidīt un cerēt ir labi, / un rātni ir prasīt un lūgties; / labāk ir negaidīt daudz, / neprasīt, nelūgties: ņemt — to wait and to hope is good, / it is sensible to ask for and beg: / better is to not wait much, / to not ask, not beg: (just) take
  3. to take to cause someone to act in a certain way, to do a certain job; also, to hire someone, to put someone to work ņemt meiteni dejot — to take a girl to dance ņemt apakšīrnieku — to take a subtenant (i.e., to sublet) ņemt palīgā — to take (someone) as help, to use (someone) in some work ņemt dzīvokļa remontam krāsotājus — to take (= hire) painters to rennovate the apartment es nau nezinu, vai mani ņems — I don't know if they will take (= hire) me gribot negribot bija jāņem zāģeri, lai sagriež dēļos — willingly or not, (they) had to take (= hire) a carpenter to cut the boards, planks gandrīz visos gājienos viņu ņēma par ceļvedi, un šo goda uzdevumu viņš uzņēmās labprāt — in almost all processions they took him as a guide, and this Marčuls zināja: šeit Randenē būs viņa pēdējais darbs... citur neviens vairs neņems baltu veci neveiklām rokām — Marčuls knew: his last work would be here, in Randene... elsewhere nobody will take a white (= gray) old man with clumsy hands mēs ņemam talkā matemātiku... visu, ko var pastāstīt medicīniskie dokumenti, pārtulkojam skaitļu valodā — we took mathematics to the rescue (= used mathematics to solve the problem)... we translated everything that the medical documents could tell into the language of numbers
  4. to take to put someone in a certain situation, condition ņemt aizbildnība, aizgādnība, glabāšanā — to take into custody ņemt gūstā — to take into captivity tu ņēmi mani savā aizsardzībā un aizstāvēji — you took me under your protection and defended (me)
  5. to take to call for duty ņemt armijā, karā — to take (someone) into the army, to war vienīgos dēlus neņēma kara dienestā — (they) didn't take only sons to military service
  6. to take to marry ņemt skaistu līgavu — to take (= marry) a beautiful bride ņemt vīru — to take a husband tu gan esi briesmīgi smuks, Belamī; varbūt tu mani par seivu ņemsi? — you are terribly handsome, Belamī; maybe you'll take me as your wife?
  7. (in combination with līdzi) to take along to cause something, someone to go or be somewhere together with oneself ņēmt ceļojumā līdzi mugursomu — to take a backpack along to the trip vienmēr ņēmt līdzi pulksteni — to always take along (one's) watch man te nepatīk; ņem mani līdzi! — I don't like it here; take me with (you)! ņēmt bērnus līdzi tūristu pārgājienā — to take the children along in a tourist trip
  8. to take, to get to obtain something for a certain purpose, use; to learn, to hear about something nezināt, kur ņemt naudu — to not know where to take money (from) ņemt citātus no dažādu autoru darbiem — to take quotes from the works of several authors kādu audumu ņemsi mētelim? — which fabric will you take (= use) for the coat? bērniem vajag skolas, apģērba, kur to visu lai ņem? — children need school, clothes, where are you going to take (= get) all that? bet pasakiet, kur lai mēs ņemam skolotājus? — but tell (me), where should we take (= get, find, hire) teachers? kur tu esi ņēmusi tādas tenkas? — where did you take (= hear) such gossip (from)? Annele nevar saprast, kur Lulīte ņem tādus nedzirdētus vārdus — Annele cannot understand where Lulīte takes (= finds, hears) such unheard(-of) words
  9. to take to get, to obtain, to acquire, to borrow, to buy ņemt grāmatas no bibliotēkā — to take books from the library ņemt kinoteātrī biļeti pēdējā rindā — to take (= get, buy) movie tickets in the last row ņemt piena produktus tuvējā veikalā — to take (= get, buy) dairy products in a nearby shop ņemt restorānā dažādus ēdienus — to take (= buy, have) several dishes in a restaurant kur tu ņemi tik skaistu drānu? — where did you take (= get, buy) such beautiful cloth?
  10. to take to gather fruits, grains, the harvest jā, rudens klāt; jau mātes ņem kāpostus — yes, autumn has arrived; mothers are already taking (= gathering) cabbage pēc skolas gāju pie saimniekiem ravēt cukurbietes, tad sienu grābt, kartupeļus ņemt — after school I went to the farmers to weet the beets, then to rake in hay (and) take (= gather, harvest) potatoes
  11. to take to remove a part of, to work on, to make by removing; also figuratively, about people ņemt platu vālu (pļaujot) — to take a wide swath (while mowing, reaping, harvesting) vālu ņem tik platu, cik izkapts atļaujtake as wide a swath as the scythe will let you šis arkls ņem šaurāku vagu — this plow takes (= makes) a narrower furrow vienu dienu centrā pie ciemata aparu zemi nākamajam parkam... dziļi tur bija jāņem: četrdesmit, četrdesmit pieci centrimetri — one day at the center by the village I plowed the land for the future park... (I) had to take (= work it) (really) deep: forty, forty-five centimeters cilvēki nāca pie viņa un asos vārdos pārmeta, ka viņš esot par daudz mīksti ņēmis baronu, vajadzējis tūlīt vakarā prasīt atbildi — people came to him and complained with sharp words that he had taken (= treated) the baron too softly, (he) should have demanded an immediate answer, that (same) evening
  12. to take to shoot, to kill someone, to “take someone out” “ES ņemšu malējo, lai tas neielec krūmos”, Līdaka pačukstēja Amatniekam, kas jau bija sagatavojies šaušanai — “I will take (= shoot) the one (German soldier) further away, so that he doesn't jump into the bushes,” the Pike whispered to the Craftsman, who was ready to shoot
  13. (in combination with a verb) used to reinforce the intensity or suddenness of the action; to up and... ņemt un izdarīt — to up and do it ņemt aiziet uz teātri — to up and go to the theater viņš ņēma un pateica visu — he up and said everything tā ir pirmā reize, kad Valdis ņēmis viņu nopēlis, līdz šim viņš uz meiteni skatījies gandrīz ar apbrīnu — this is the first time that Valdis up and (= really) gave her a reprimand, up until then he had rather looked at the girl with admiration
  14. to take, to consider, to treat, to accept (something as something) ņemt dzīvi tādu, kāda tā ir — to take life as it is ņemt ļaunā, par ļaunu — to take (something) badly (= to be offended) ņemt par labu — to take (something) well (= to consider it good) ņemt viegli — to take (something) lightly ņemt nopietni — to take (something) seriously juridiski ņemot — juridically taking (= speaking) vienu istabu ierīkoju par savu buduāru, ņemdama paraugam Laines istabu — I will decorate one room as my boudoir, taking as example Laine's room vispār ņemot, dzīvnieku valodai piemīt sugu specifika: līdzīgs sazinās ar līdzīgu — generally speaking (= taking), animal language is essentially about the specific: similar is connected to similar vai tā bija laime? jā, protams; visu savu dzīvi kopā ņemot, viņš nevarēja to nosaukt citādi kā par laimīgu — was that happiness? yes, of course; taking all life together (= into account), he could not call it anything but happy
  15. of animals, especially fish to take, to get and eat; to bite labi zināms: dienas vidu līdakas neņem — (it is) well known: in the middle of the day, pikes don't bite vasarā bija daudz zivju, bet tagad rudenī mēs braucam ar velci, un mūsu vizulīti neņem neviena pati — at the creek in summer there were many fish, but now in autumn we go with a draging pen, and not one (of the fish) takes (= bites) our little bait
  16. (colloquial, of sharp tools) to cut Uģis atvāza savu kabatas nazi un pārbaudīja asmeni... “ņems labi”, nosprieda — Uģis opened his pocket knife and examined the blade... “it will take (= cut) well,” he thought šķembu bojāts zāģis vairs nav uzasināms, jo vīle tādus zobus neņem — the saw damaged by splinters can no longer be sharpened, because the file won't take (= sharpen) such teeth jaunais vīles pirms lietošas vienmēr ieberzējamas ar krītu vai koka ogli, lai tās sākumā tik asi neņemtu — new files before being used are always rubbed with chalk or charcoal, so that they don't take (= cut) so sharply at first (use)
  17. (often with nost) to take away to cause someone to lose something karš pirmo dēlu ņēma mātei; no frontes nāca nāves ziņa — the war took mother's first son; the news of (his) death came rom the front cilvēks visu var aizliegt, visu var aizturēt, bet ne domāšanu, jo tad jāņem pati dzīvība papriekšu — you can prohibit everything, stop everyghing, but not thought, because then you have to take life (= kill) before (you can do that) Marga ir mana tēva drauga meita; bet viņa tev Hariju nost neņems, viņai ir līgavainis — Marga is my father's friend's daughter; but she will not take Harry away (from) you, she (already) has a fiancé
  18. (dated sense) to take a path, road, direction, to set off in some direction Antiņš ņēma ceļu uz māju taisni pār purvu — Antiņš took path (= set off toward) home straight across the swamp droši vien prātīgāk būtu uzreiz ņemt uz dienvidiem un tādā veidā saīsināt ceļu — it would probably be wiser to just take (= set off, go) south and thus shorten the way
Synonyms: grābt, tvert
ost etymology From *uosti, from Proto-Baltic *uod-ti, from *ōd-, from Proto-Indo-European *od-, *ōd-, *h₃ed- 〈*h₃ed-〉. Cognates include Lithuanian úosti, Old Czech jadati, Polish badać, Ancient Greek ὄζω 〈ózō〉, Latin odōr, Albanian amë.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to smell to perceive an odor ost cepeti — to smell roast(ed meat) ost vīnu — to smell the wine ost spirta smaku — to smell the odor of alcohol strādājot virtuvē, visu laiku redzot, ožot ēdienu, it kā ēstgribas vairs nav — working in a kitchen, seeing and smelling food all the time, it is as if one no longer had (= could feel) the desire to eat
  2. to smell, to sniff to inhale air through the nose, usually several times, in order to try to perceive a smell ost ēteri — to smell ether ožamais spirtssmelling salts, hartshorn (lit. smellable alcohol) divi cilvēki, piebāzuši pirkstu galus pie deguna, steidzīgi oda kaut ko baltu kā lauku vecenes šņaucamo tabaku — two people, bringing the tips of their fingers to their noses, quickly smelled something white, like old women snuffing tobacco in the countryside
  3. (figuratively, colloquial) to smell to sense, to find out saimnieks jau dabūjis ost, ka tu citu vietu meklējoties — the landowner has already managed to smell that you are looking for another place
  4. to smell, to stink to have, to spread a bad, unpleasant smell te pēc benzīna — it smells like gasoline here ost pēc ķiplokiem, siļķēm, alus — to smell like garlic, herring, beer
  5. to smell to have, to spread a pleasant odor ost pēc odekolona — to smell like eau-de-cologne puķe jauki — the flower smells nice nokāpj gravā; pēc valgmes un pērnajām lapām — he goes down the ravine; (there) it smells like dampness and last year's leaves
  6. (figuratively, colloquial) to smell to suggest, make think of something, usually unpleasant tas jau oda pēc fašisma — that smelled like fascism
Synonyms: (of "to sniff") ostīt, (of "to sense") jaust, (of "to stink") smirdēt, smakot, (of "to spread pleasant odor") smaržot
related terms:
  • ostīt
  • oža
pakaļa
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. hind part, hinder part
  2. back
  3. seat
  4. posterior
  5. (colloquial) bottom
  6. (colloquial) buttocks
  7. (colloquial) behind
  8. hind quarters (about animals)
  9. croup (about horse)
  10. (vulgar) arse
  11. (vulgar) ass
papa
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (often, childish) dad, daddy
  2. (archaic) pope
pēcpuse etymology From pēc ‘after’ + puse ‘side’.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) (slang, vulgar) tail, ass, butt
Synonyms: dibens (standard)
pediņš etymology Probably a diminutive of pederasts.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (vulgar, derogatory) faggot sūkā manu pipeli, pediņ — suck my dick, faggot
Synonyms: gejs, homiķis
peldēt etymology From Proto-Baltic *peld-, from Proto-Indo-European *pel- with an extra -d. The meaning, originally “to flow,” evolved into “to be in a (water) stream” and then “to swim.” Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal peldė́ti, Ancient Greek πλάδος 〈pládos〉, πλαδορός 〈pladorós〉, πλαδάω 〈pladáō〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (of people, animals) to swim to move in water by floating and moving one's limbs peldēt uz muguras — to swim backstroke (lit. on (one's) back) peldēt kraulā — to swim crawl stroke peldēt zem ūdens — to swim under water peldēt pa ezeru — to swim in the lake peldēt pa straumi, pret straumi — to swim with, against the current peldēt uz upes otru krastu — to swim to the other side of the river suns labi peld — the dog swims well dīķī peld pīles, gulbji — ducks, swans swim in the pond viņš noskatījās Janča veiklībā, kas gluži kā zivs peldēja gan sāņus, gan guļus, gan augšpēdus — he watched Jančs' agility, who swam smoothly as a fish, on his side, lying down, and upside down zivtiņa peld, līkumus liekdama,... zibinādama savus sudrabainos sānus, strauji vērsdamas — the little fish swam, turning turns... flashing its silvery sides, quickly turning around
  2. (of objects; of ships, boats, etc.) to float; to sail to move in water ezerā peld ledus gabali — pieces of ice are floating in the lake ūdenī peldēja makšķeres pludiņš — the fishing bobber was floating in the water pa upi peld liellaivas — the barges are sailing on the river blakus laivai peldēja samircis priedes mizas gabals — near the boat, a broken piece of pine tree bark laiva peldēja nevis tur, kur es gribēju, uz augšu, saules sudrabā, bet slīdēja pa straumi lēni lejup — the boat was sailing not where I wanted, upstream, to(ward) the sun's silver; instead, it slid slowly downstream
  3. to float, to hover to be in a state of equilibrium in a liquid or in a gas pilnīgi iegrimis peldošs ķermenis parasti vienmēr atrodas stabilā līdzsvarā — a fully immersed foating body are always in stable equilibrium kosmonauts pastāstīja, ka tad, kad iestājies bezsvara stāvoklis, viņš juties ļoti labi... kājas un rokas nekā nesver, priekšmeti peld pa kabīni — the astronaut said that he felt very well when weightlessness started... (his) legs and feet had no weight, objects floated through the cabin
  4. to float to be completely covered by a liquid zupā peld trekni aitas gaļas gabali — fatty pieces of sheep meat are floating in the soup pankūkām pilnīgi jāpeld taukos; tas jācep uz mērenas uguns, lai labi izceptos un neapdegtu — the pancakes must completely float in the fat; they must be fried on low heat, so that they are well fried and don't burn
  5. (of clouds, fog, smoke, etc.) to float, to hover to move slowly in the sky zemu peldēja padebeši — the clouds were hovering low mākonis peldēja debess augstākā vietā, lēni noapaļodams savas robainās malas — the cloud was floating in the highest place of the sky, slowly smoothing its jagged edge iedegās ugunskurs... zilganas dūmu strēles peldēja pāri ievu krūmiem — the fire started burning... bluish smoke floated, hovered over the street bushes
  6. (of birds, flying objects, celestial bodies, etc.) to hover, to fly or move slowly in the sky divas vārnas nolaižas lejāk un smagi peld sarkanumā virs meža galiem — two crows flew down and heavily hover in the redness above the tops of the forest trees ugunīgi kvēlā vasaras saule peldēja zilajā debesu bezgalībā — the fiery summer sun was floating in the blue infinity of the sky no debesim nesteidzīgā lidojumā peldēja lielas sniega pārslas — a big snow flake was floating in a leisurely flight (down) from the sky
  7. (figuratively) to move around, as if swim plašajā druvā gāzelēdamies peldēja divas pļaujmašīnas — two mowers were floating/swimming, wobbling in the wide cornfield viņa mierīgi peld pa trotuarā vidu, pie krūtīm piespiedusi silpureņu nastiņu — she quietly swam on the sidewalk, pressing her little bunch of pasque flowers to her chest beidzot mums kalpone tomēr bija mājā... kundze drūma kā mākonis peldēja pa istabām un paslepus novēroja jauno — we finally had a maid in the house... the gloomy (old) lady hovered around like a cloud over the rooms and secretely satched the new one (= maid)
  8. (of objects) to be, to be locate (e.g., in the fog, in smoke, in the darkness, as if float) kad atguva apziņu, viss apkārt ap skolas ēku jau peldēja liesmās un gaiss bija kā svelme — when he regained consciousness, everything around in the school building was swimming in flames and the air was aglow kakti jau grima pilnīgā tumsā, tikai ap galdu vēl peldēja trīsošs staru loks — the corners (of the room) were already immersed in full darkness, only around the table there still floated a trembling circle of light
  9. (colloquial, of sounds) to keep changing volume unexpectedly, due to a defect in the record equipment skaņa peld — the sound is floating, fluctuating (= going up and down)
related terms:
  • peldu, peldus
peža
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) (vulgar slang) vagina; pussy, cunt
Synonyms: pīzda (vulgar), vagīna, maksts (standard)
pīle {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology Of onomatopoeic (imitative) origin, as is the case with several other Indo-European bird names, all from Proto-Indo-European onomatopoeic *pī- (reduplicated form *pīp-): Lithuanian pỹlė 〈pỹlė〉, Bulgarian пиле 〈pile〉, Serbo-Croatian pile, Slovenian pípa, Ancient Greek πίπος 〈pípos〉. The Latvian term, originally probably a dialectal colloquialism, has apparently replaced an earlier Proto-Baltic *antis; compare Lithuanian ántis.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. duck birds of family Anatidae mājas pīle — domestic (lit. house) duck meža pīle — wild (lit. forest) duck pīļu mātīte — female duck pīļu olasduck eggs pīļu ligzdošanas vietasduck nesting areas pīļu audzētavaduck farm pīles cepetis — roast duck
  2. (colloquial) false sensationalist rumor avīžu pīle — newspaper sensationalist rumors palaist pīli — to run a sensationalist rumor
pilnīgs etymology From pilns + īgs.
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. complete, total, full, perfect, absolute having reached the highest degree, the highest level, in its form, adequacy, suitability for use, etc. pilnīgs klusumscomplete silence pilnīga tumsatotal darkness pilnīgs haosstotal chaos, a complete mess gūt pilnīgu uzvaru — to obtain a complete victory māja ir pilnīgā kārtībā — the house is in perfect order atrasties pilīgā drošībā — to be absolutely safe (lit. in absolute safety)
  2. perfect very similar to something else zupa savārījusies pilnīgā biezputrā — the soup was cooked into a perfect porridge
  3. (of mental or physical states) perfect, total, complete, full very strong, visible, obvious pilnīga sajūsmatotal delight pilnīgs nervu sabrukumsfull nervous breakdown izjust pilnīgu nespēku — to feel complete exhaustion
  4. (of people) full, complete, absolute who has all the power, all the necessary skills and qualities for an occupation or situation ja tu gaidi par savu darbu spriedumu no citiem, tad neesi tai darbā vēl pilnīgs, bet tikai māceklis — if you wait for the judgment of others on your work, then you are not complete, full in your work, but only an apprentice. šinī mājā uzraugs bija pilnīgs valdnieks — in this house the guard was a full, absolute ruler
  5. (of people) full corresponding to a given ideal of personhood pilnīga personība — a full personality, personhood ja gribi pilnīgs būt un sevī liels... — if you want to be full and great in(side of) yourself...
  6. (of people's qualities, especially negative ones) complete, full, perfect pilnīgs muļķis — a complete fool
  7. complete, full covering all its extension, space; covering all details pilnīgs saules apstumsumsfull solar eclipse pilnīgs jautājuma izklāstscomplete presentation of the matter gūt pilnīgu informāciju — to obtain complete, full information complete, full with nothing missing pilnīgs sporta sacensību dalībnieku sarakstscomplete list of participants in sports events pilnīgs kopotu rakstu izdevumscomplete works edition (i.e., of the works of a given writer)
  8. (of people) full, plump, chubby (gloss|relative fat}} pilnīgas lūpasfull lips viņa ir liela, veselīga sieviete, varbūt tikai mazliet pilnīgāka, nekā būtu nepieciešami vajadzīgs — she is a big, healthy woman, maybe a little bit chubbier than would be really necessary
  9. (colloquial) physically, mentally healthy viņš neticēja iespējām, ka no šī kara kāds var atgriezties pilnīgs — he didn't believe in the possibility that from this war someone could return healthy saimniece bija palaidusi valodas, ka šuvēja Lapsiņu Frīda vairs neesot gluži pilnīga; caurām dienām dzivojot pa savu istabu, viena pati sarunājoties un dziedot — the mistress had started a rumor that the seamstress Lapsiņu Frīda no longer was fully (mentally) healthy; she spent the day in her room, talking and singing alone
related terms:
  • pilnība
  • pilnīgums
pilns Alternative forms: (dialectal form) pills etymology From Proto-Balto-Slavic *pilˀnas, from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₁nós 〈*pl̥h₁nós〉, from *pleh₁- 〈*pleh₁-〉, *pl̥- (with an adjectivizing suffix -no-), the same stem as pildīt (q.v.). The original meaning was thus “poured,” “flowed,” “heaped,” from which “filled.” Cognates include Lithuanian pìlnas, Prussian pilnan (singular accusative), erpilninaiti (imperative 2nd person plural), Church Slavic пльнъ 〈plʹnʺ〉, плънъ 〈plʺnʺ〉, Russian по́лный 〈pólnyj〉, Proto-Germanic *fulla- (< *fulna- < *pulna-; Gothic 𐍆𐌿𐌻𐌻𐍃 〈𐍆𐌿𐌻𐌻𐍃〉, German voll, English full), Sanskrit पूर्ण 〈pūrṇa〉 (< *pūlna- < *pl̥-no-), Latin plēnus.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of containers) full without any space left pilna bļoda — full bowl pilna kanna ar pienu — pot full of milk piebērt pilnus grozus ar kartupeļiem — to load baskets full of potatoes piesmelt pilnu spaini ar ūdeni — to draw a full bucket of water
  2. (of spaces, rooms) full completely occupied pilns skapis ar drēbēm — a wardrobe full of clothes pilns penālis ar zīmuļiem — a pencil case full of pencils piekraut pilnu šķūni ar sienu — to load a barn full of hay
  3. (of flat objects) full with completely occupied surface; with many thing on its surface pilns galdsfull table (with food, drinks, etc.) zeme piebirusi pilna ar āboliem — the earth was covered full of apples piebārstīt pilnu grīdu ar skaidām — to scatter sawdust all over the floor
  4. (of paper, books, etc.) full completely written, drawn over; with many writings, drawings pierakstīt pilnu kladi ar lekcijām — to fill a notebook (= to write it full) with lectures burtnīca pilna ar stundu plāniem — a notebook full of lesson plans grāmata pilna ar krāsainiem zīmējumiem — a book full of colorful illustrations
  5. (of places, objects) full with many people, animals, plants, objects; with all available places occupied; where some substance has spread pilns veikals ar pircējiem — a shop full of customers ielas pilnas turistu — streets full of tourists ļaužu pilnas ielas — streets full of people autobuss pilns ar pasažieriem — a bus full of passengers strops pilns ar bitēm — a hive full of bees pilns parks ar vāverem — a park full of squirrels purvs pilns odu — a swamp full of mosquitoes pilns dārzs ar ābelēm — a garden full of apple trees šogad meži pilni sēņu — this year the forests (are) full of mushrooms noliekt riekstu pilnu lazdas zaru — to tilt, to bend a hazel branch full of nuts virtuve pilna ar dūmiem — a kitchen full of smoke pagalms pilns ar bērnu čalām — a yard full of children's chatter
  6. (of substances) full with considerable admixture of something else graudi pilni pelavām — grains full of chaff kaļķi pilni ar smiltīm — lime filled with sand duļķu pilns ūdens — water full of mud
  7. (of natural phenomena) full where something occurs or is formed in large quantites ieleja pilna ar biezu miglu — a valley full of thick mist zeme pilna valgmes — land full of moisture, humidity ceļi pilni ar dubļiem — roads full of mud
  8. (of processes, activities) full where some intense activity occurs, characterized by some intense activity istaba ir rosības pilna — the room is full of activity, of hustle and bustle grūtību pilns ceļojums — a trip full of difficulties, hardships gaidu pilnas stundas — hours full of waiting pārdzīvot laimes pilnus mirkļus — to live, experience moments full of happiness, bliss optimisma pilns romāns — a novel full of optimism
  9. (of people or their actions) full feeling, possessing some mental feature very intensely prieka pilns bērns — a child full of joy pārliecības pilns cilvēks — a person full of confidence spēka pilns jauneklis — a young man full of strength pārliecības pilna rīcība — an action full of confidence neizpratnes pilna seja — a face full of incomprehension naida pilns skatiens — a look full of hate prieka pilns sauciens — a cry full of joy
  10. (of qualities, means; usually in locative) full at the highest intensity, at the highest level of development braukt pilnā ātrumā — to drive at full speed pilna slodzefull-time pilnā jaudā, ar pilnu jaudu — at full capacity, with all strength runāt, dziedāt, kliegt pilnā balsī — to speak, sing, shout at full voice pilnā kaujas gatavībā — in full combat readiness rudzi ir pilnā briedumā — the rye is in full maturity
  11. (of plans, books, courses, teams) full, complete, whole, entire covering the whole set, extension; having all parts; pilns apmācību kurssfull training course noklausīties pilnu lekciju ciklu — to listen to the full lecture series pilna biogrāfijafull biography pilns komplekts — a full, complete set pilns lidmašīnas personālsastāvsfull flight personnel hokeja komanda spēlē pilnā sastavā — the hockey team plays in its full composition (= the full team, the whole team)
  12. (of amounts, measurements) full, whole, complete corresponding exactly to the given value nostrādāt pilnu darba nedēļu — to work two full work weeks sasniegt pilnus astoņpadsmit gadus — to reach, to achieve full eighteen years (of age)
  13. (of circles, lines, time periods) full, continuous, uninterrupted pilns apgrieziensfull, complete rotation darba tika pabeigti tikai pilnā naktī — the work was finished only in (= after) a full night
  14. (of body, body parts) full relatively large, stout miesās pilns cilvēks — a full-bodied (= large, stout) person sieviete ar pilnām lūpām — a woman with full lips
  15. (colloquial, of people) full, very drunk daži tik pilni, ka streipuļoja — some (of the people) so full (= drunk) that they staggered
antonyms:
  • tukšs
pimpis
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) (vulgar, slang) penis; dick, cock, prick
Synonyms: dzimumloceklis (standard), pipele (vulgar)
pipele
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) (vulgar slang) penis; dick, cock, prick sūkā manu pipeli, pediņsuck my dick, faggot
Synonyms: (standard term) dzimumloceklis, (vulgar) pimpis
pipelīte etymology From pipele + īte.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (vulgar slang) little penis (diminutive of pipele)
pirdiens
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) (informal, vulgar) fart emission of gases through one's anus
pīzda etymology From Proto-Balto-Slavic *pīˀsdāˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *písdeh₂ 〈*písdeh₂〉. Cognate to Lithuanian pyzda, Common Slavic *pizda.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (vulgar, slang, anatomy) cunt, pussy (the female genitalia, especially external genitalia)
Synonyms: peža (vulgar), vagīna, maksts (standard)
plāns
etymology 1 A Borrowing from German Plan, which is itself a borrowing from French plan, from Latin planta, which is ultimately from the same stem as the adjective plāns below. This borrowing is first mentioned in 19th-century dictionaries.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. plan, map, blueprint, layout a detailed drawing or scheme of an object, a building, a territory skolas plānsplan, blueprint of the school dzīvokļa plānsplan, blueprint of the apartment parka, stadiona plānsplan of the park, of the stadium izstrādāt ēkas plānu — to develop a plan for the building labojumi ciemata plānā — corrections in the village plans
  2. plan, map a drawing indicating the path of a movement, its direction, order, etc. evakuācijas plāns — evaculation plan ekspedīcijas pārvietošanās plāns — expedition travel plan karaspēka virzības plāns — troop advancement plan, map
  3. plan a future event worked out in detail; the corresponding text or document ražošanas plāns — production plan ekonomiskās un sociālās attīstības kompleksais plāns — a combined plan for economical and social development izstrādāt, nospraust, apstiprināt plānu — to develop, to outline, to approve a plan nodrošināt plāna izspildi — to ensure the execution of a plan veikt darbu saskaņā ar plānu — to perform work according to plan
  4. plan intention, idea, thoughts about the future realization of some course of action nākotnes plāniplans (for) the future man galvā jaucas dažādi plāni: kā dzīvot tālāk, ko darīt... — in my head various plans are mixed: how to live further, what to do...
  5. (of texts) plan concise sequential formulation of the structure of a text disertācijas plāns — dissertation plan sacerējuma, romāana plāns — essay, novel plan nolasīt lekcijas plānu — to read the lecture plan
  6. plane view from a certain standpoint, as a certain sphere of expression nemanāmi cieši abās lugās kopā savijusies sociālais un individuālais plāns — in both plays the social and individual planes are closely, seamlessly intertwined
  7. plane location of an object or a part of it, depending on the viewer's vantage point skatuves iekārtojumā izšķir trīs plānus: priekšējo, vidējo un dziļo plānu — in the organization of a stage one distinguishes three planes: the front (= foreground), the middle (= midground) and the deep (= background) plane.
  8. plane the frame at which a scene is filmed dažreiz uzņemtā aina, epizode, atsevišķs plāns jāiemontē pavisam citā filma vietā, nekā scenārija bijis paredzēts — sometimes the captured scene, episode, a differnt plan must be fitted at a completely different point in the movie than had been intended in the screenplay
  9. (usually in the locative, with pirmais, otrais, etc.) plane level of importance rakstnieks šo tēlu atstājis trēšajā plānā — the writer left this image in the third plane kopš pašām pirmajām darba dienām skolotājas personīga dzīve attālinājās kaut kur otrajā plānā — since the very first days of work, a schoolteacher's personal life is moved back somewhere into the second plane (= background) ja vairāk pirmajā plānā izvirzītos autora iecerētā doma, lugas pamatideja izrādē izskanētu vēl spēcīgāk, emocionālāk, pārliecinošāk — if the author's intended thought had been put forward more in the first plane (= foreground), then the play's main idea would have sounded stronger, more emotional, more persuasive
etymology 2 From Proto-Baltic *planas, from Proto-Indo-European *pel-, *pelh-, *plā- with an extra (adjectivizing) suffix -no-s. The semantic change probably was “to stretch out” > “to make thin by stretching” > “thin.” Cognates include Lithuanian plónas, Latin plānus, Hittite palẖi 〈palẖi〉. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of leaf- or wall-like objects) thin having a small cross section plāns dēlisthin board, plank plāna sienathin wall plāns stikls, ledusthin glass, ice nogriezt plānu maizes šķēli — to cut a thin slice of bread plāns kā papīrsthin as paper
  2. (of fabric, cloth) thin with a small cross section; not thick, not dense, light, translucid plāns audumsthin fabric plāna šalle, blūzethin scarf, blouse
  3. (usually of hair, etc.) thin such that its component parts are far from each other; syn. rets plāni matithin hair plānas uzacisthin eyebrows tur pie galdiņa sēdēja sirmgalvis ar pliku galvvidu un plāniem, baltiem matiem — there at the little table an old man sat, with a bald top of head and thin, white hair deju starplaikos drūzma zāles vidū neko plānāka nekļuva — the dancing crowd in the middle of the hall did not become any thinner
  4. (of food, drink) thin not very nutritious, lean, rather liquid in consistency plāna putrathin porridge plāna, ūdeņaina mērcītethin, watery little sauce plāna sēņu zupathin mushroom soup
  5. (of gases, smoke, fog) thin not dense, not opaque plāna dūmakathin haze migla kļuva plānāka — the mist became thinnner plāns dūmu stabiņš — thin column of smoke aiz plānajiem mākoņiem peld nespodrs mēness — behind thin clouds swam the dim moon
  6. (of people, their body parts) thin, weak plāns degunsthin nose plāna plaukstathin hand, palm (of hand) viņa sievas vaigi kļuvuši plānāki — his wife's cheeks (had) become thinner
  7. (colloquial) thin, poor zivju tīklos pavisam maz; tomēr, neraugoties uz plānu lomu, komandai garastāvoklis ļoti labs — there were very few fish in the nets; however, despite the thin, poor catch, the team's mood (was) very good
  8. (rare, of physical or psychological states) incomplete, weak šādā elektriskajā gaismā putna miegs ir plāns — under this electric light the bird's sleep is weak tikai smaids palika plānāks — only the smile became thinner, weaker
Synonyms: (of cylindrial objects) tievs, (of hair) rets, (of hair, food, liquids, fabric) šķidrs
antonyms:
  • biezs
etymology 3 A nominalized form of the adjective plāns, with the etymological meaning of “flat” > “ground, floor.” The different intonation is the result of historical changes in the position of stress. Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal planas, standard form plónas, Prussian plonis, vl plānum, Proto-Germanic *flōrus (gml vlōr, German Flur, English floor. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (dialectal) barn floor, threshing floor syn. klons rijas plāns — barn floor virtuves plāns — kitchen (earthen, clay) floor kambarītim nebija grīdas, tāpat kā istabai; bet plāns te izskatījas gludāks, tīrāks, sausāks, jo vistas netika iekšā — the basement had no (log) floor, like the room; but the (clay, earth) floor there looked smoother, cleaner, drier, because there were no chickens inside ja man vēl šodien istabai kakti jāizslauka tikpat tīri kā plāna vidus, tad to man tika mācījusi pamāte — if to this day I wipe the corners of my room as clean as the middle of the floor, then (it is because) my stepmother taught me (to do so)
Synonyms: klons, grīda
prostitūta etymology Via other European languages, ultimately a Borrowing from Latin prōstituta, the feminine form of prōstitutus, past participle of prōstituō, from pro + statuo. pronunciation {{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. prostitute a woman who sells sex Raskoļņikovs sastapās ar Marmeladovu, klausījās viņa dzīves stāstu, uzzināja, ka viņa meita, lai glābtu ģimeni, kļuvusi par prostitūtu — Raskoļņikovs (Raskolnikov) met with Marmeladov, heard his life story, (and) found out that his (= Marmeladov's) daughter, in order to save (her) family, (had) become a prostitute
Synonyms: ielasmeita, (vulgar) mauka
related terms:
  • prostitūcija
  • prostituēt, prostituēties
ražot etymology From the same stem as raža, made into a second conjugation verb (ending -ot).{{R:lv:LEV|raža}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to produce to make, to create material goods, objects, substances, etc. with one's work ražot preces tirgum — to produce goods for the market ražot automobiļus — to produce automobiles ražot kvalitatīvu produkciju — to produce quality products ražot lauksaimniecības produktus — to produce agricultural products hidroelektrostacija ik gadu ražo vairāk nekā 1 miljonu kilovatstundu elektroenerģijas — the hydroelectric plant produces every year more than 1 million kilowatt-hours of electricity
  2. (colloquial, of people) to work viņš uzbilda Uldi: “kur tu ražo?” “lauksaimniecības mašīnu fabrikā” — he asked Uldis: “where do you produce (= work)?” “in the agricultural machine factory”
  3. (of bodies, organisms, their parts) to produce to create substances, tissue, organs etc. by means of a physiological process ražot sēklas, ogas — to produce seeds, berries aizkuņģa dziedzerī ir 2 šūnu veidi: alfa šūnas, kas producē glikogēnu, un beta šūnas, kas ražo insulīnu — the pancreas has two kinds of cells: alpha cells, which produce glycogen, and beta cells, which produce insulin čiekurus ražot priedes sāk tikai otrajā mūža gadu desmitā — connifers start producing pine cones only in the second decade of life plūmes ir ātraudzīgas, sāk ražot jau otrajā vai trešajā gadā pec stādīšanas — plums are fast-growing, they start producing (fruit) already in the second or third year after planting
Synonyms: izgatavot, producēt
related terms:
  • raža
  • ražens
  • ražība
  • ražīgs, ražīgums
resns etymology From the same stem as rets (q.v.), with adjectival derivation: *ret-snas > resns. Maybe originally used of trees: rare, sparse trees, separate from others, tend to be thick; this sense could then be generalized to other tree-like objects. A different opinion is that resns is related to Old High German risi, Church Slavic рєдъ 〈rêdʺ〉, and perhaps, via metathesis, with Latvian vērsis; but the Lithuanian cognate suggests that the original meaning of this word was “stout,” “strongly built,” not “well fed.” Cognates include Lithuanian rẽsnas 〈rẽsnas〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of cylindrical objects) thick having a relatively large cross-section resni baļķithick logs resns zīmulisthick, stubby pencil resns stumbrsthick, stout trunk resna virtuve, stieple, caurulethick rope, wire, tube resni diegithick thread resnas adatasthick needles resnā zarna — colon (lit. thick intestine)
  2. (of people, animals, body parts) fat, overweight resns vīrsfat man resns vēdersfat belly resna tirgus sievafat market woman, lady resns sivēnsfat piglet
  3. (colloquial, of sounds) having a low timbre Jaņuka resnā balss — Jaņuks' thick voice
Synonyms: (of leaf- or wall-like objects) biezs, (of people) tukls
antonyms:
  • tievs
  • slaids, slaiks
rīks etymology From Proto-Indo-European *rey-, *rī- (with an extra k); cf. dialectal riekt. Apparently, the original meaning of rīks was “sharp instrument,” perhaps “knife.” Cognates include Lithuanian rỹkas 〈rỹkas〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. instrument, tool, equipment an object used for a specific task, work, etc. namdara, kalēja rīks — carpenter's, blacksmith tool lauksaimniecības, metālapstrādes rīki — agricultural, metalworking tools medību, zvejas rīks — hunting, fishing tool, instrument rotaļu rīks — toy tool vingrošanas rīki — exercise, fitness equipment soda rīksmeans, instrument of punishment ražošanas rīkitools, means of production
Synonyms: (colloquial term) daikts, instruments
roka {{slim-wikipedia}} {{picdic}} etymology From Proto-Baltic *rankā (perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *rankāˀ), from Proto-Indo-European *wrenk-, *wronk-, derived from the *wr- of the stem *wer-. The original meaning was therefore “bent, bending (organ, limb).” In bat, the initial *w was lost, while in some other languages it became *b; cf. Latin branca. Cognates include Lithuanian rankà, Prussian rancko, Proto-Slavic *rǫka (Church Slavic рѫка 〈rѫka〉, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian рука 〈ruka〉, Bulgarian ръка 〈rʺka〉, Upper Sorbian, Czech ruka, Polish ręka).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (anatomy) hand, arm each of the upper limbs of the human body, from shoulder to palm kreisā, labā roka — left, right hand, arm spēcīgas, muskuļainas rokas — strong, muscular arms veiklas rokas — agile, skillful hands aiz, pie rokas — (taking someone) by the hand uz rokām — (holding, lifting something) in the arms zem rokas — (holding something) under (one's) arm roku rokāhand in hand māt, mest ar roku — to wave one's hand(s) sniegt, dot roku — to give, to offer (one's) hand (for a handshake) piedāvāt roku — to offer (one's) hand, arm (for support) spiest, paspiest, saspiest roku — to shake hand(s) rokas spiedienshandshake vilkt cimdus rokā — to put gloves on one's hand(s) paņemt rokā grāmatu — to take the book in one's hand(s) maciņš izkrīt no rokas — the little wallet fell out of (his) hand(s) māte mēdz iespiest rokas sānos — mother used to press her arms against her side lai gan nav auksti, tomēr Juris mauc rokā pirkstainus cimdus — though it is not cold, Juris puts on his hand(s) the fingered gloves (i.e., not mittens, but gloves with actual places for each of the five fingers)
  2. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) hand ..., manual to be used with one's hands, arms; to be done, carried out with one's hands, arms rokas bremzehand brake rokas svarihand-held weights rokas sūknishand pump rokas zāģis, rokzāģishand saw rokas granātahand grenade rokas bagažahand luggage rokas pulkstenis — wrist (lit. hand) watch roku dzelžihandcuffs roku dvielishand towel rokas sprādze, rokassprādze — bracelets (hand buckle) rokas soma, rokassomahandbag roku darbsmanual labor; handmade item (lit. hand work) rokas veidošanamanual fabrication (= built manually) ar automātiskajām centrālēm aizstātas rokas apkalpes telefona centrāles — with automatic (phone) exchanges manual service was replaced in telephone (= call) centers
  3. (colloquial) sleeve part of a garment that covers one's arms kleita ar garām rokām — a dress with long arms (= sleeves) atrotīt krekla rokas — to roll up the shirt's arms (= sleeves)
  4. (technology) arm a long, mobile mechanical device or part of a mechanical device; a handle mehāniskā roka — mechanical arm, hand robota roka satver apaļu metāla sagatavi un paliek to zem spiednes — the robot hand griped the circular metal object and placed it under the press turamās rokas arklam ar skaista līkumā izliektiem apaļiem galiem koši zilas — the bright blue plow hands (= handles) with round ends bent in a beautifully arch
Latvian roka, like Russian рука 〈ruka〉, refers both to a person's entire arm and more specifically to a person's hand; context usually clarifies which interpretation is best. It is the most frequent term in both senses. The word delms “upper limb; arm between shoulder and hand” is rare and academic, and plauksta, though sometimes translatable as “hand,” refers more specifically to the palm of the hand. Synonyms: (of "sleeve") piedurkne, (of "handle") rokturis
sālīts
participle: {{lv-part}}
  1. salt; lv-participle of sālīt sālīts sviestssalted butter
  2. (colloquial) very expensive riepas automobiļiem tagad sālītas; viens tāds gumijas luņķītis maksā lērumu naudas — car tires (are) now expensive (lit. salted); one such rubber thing costs a bunch of money
  3. (colloquial, of words) rough, rude, indecent brigadieris ir lielisks organizators, reizēm neiztiek bez asāka vārda, palaiž sālītāku izteicienu, bet brigāde viņu mīl — the team leader is a great organizer, sometimes he can't manage without a sharper word, (sometimes) he lets out a saltier expression, but the team loves him
Synonyms: sāļš
sāļš etymology From an earlier sālijs, still dialectally attested, from the same stem as sāls (q.v.).{{R:lv:LEV|sāls}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. salty having the taste typical of salt; containing salt, usually cooking salt sāļš ēdienssalty food sāļa garšasalty taste, flavor vēži ir sāļš, alus rūgts, tomēr garšo — crayfish is salty, (and) beer (is) bitter, yet they are tasty prieka un bēdu asaras ir vienādi saļas — tears of joy and sadness are equally salty aukstajā galdā vēl liek sāļos cepumus (siera cepumus vai sālsstandziņas) — at the cold (food) table (they) still put the salty biscuits (cheese biscuts or pretzels) sāļās kūkas pasniedz kafijas galdā — (they) are serving the salty cakes at the coffee table
  2. salty having the smell or taste typical of, e.g., sea water sāļa smarža, smakasalty smell (e.g., of sea water) sāļa vēja smaržasalty smell of the wind četros pēcpusdienā kapteiņa vecākais palīgs Šika pieņēma sardzi; viņš izgāja uz spārna, ieelpoja sāļo gaisu — at 4 p.m. the captain's old helper Šika took the watch; he went on the wing (of the ship) (and) inhaled the salty air
  3. (colloquial, of words; syn. sālīts) impolite, rude mazais vīriņš Rasa pēc katra sāļā joka salēcās un sarauca savu tuklo seju daudzās sīkās krunkās — the little man Rasa after every salty (= rude) joke jumped and wrinkled his chubby face into many tiny wrinkles
Synonyms: (of "impolite, rude") sālīts
related terms:
  • sāls
  • sālīt
seksuāls etymology Ultimately from sekss + āls. Probably not formed in Latvian, but borrowed as such from some other European language (e.g., Latin sexualis).
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. sexual relating to sex, to one's sex life seksuālā baudasexual pleasure, delight seksuālā aktivitātesexual activity seksuālās fantāzijassexual fantasies seksuālā orientācijasexual orientation seksuālie instinktisexual instincts seksuāls kompleksssexual complex seksuālā novirzesexual deviation, perversion psihoterapija ir viena no galvenajām metodēm seksuālo traucējumu ārstēšanā — psychotherapy is one of the main methods in the treatment of sexual disorders
  2. sexual relating to sex and reproduction augu pasaules pārstāvji pieder pie dažādiem seksuālajiem tipiem — the members of the plant world belong to different sexual types
  3. (colloquial) sexy suggestive; causing sexual desire; attractive, desirable (also non-sexually) seksuāls vīrietissexy man seksuāla sievietesexy woman kurš ir seksuālākais auto pasaulē? — which is the sexiest car in the world?
Synonyms: (of "relating to sex") intīms, (of "sexy") erotisks, seksīgs
sencis etymology From sens, made into a 2nd-declension noun. The c suggests a dialectal origin, from those dialects where ns > nc. Alternatively, it may have come from an earlier *sentis, via genitive *senša > senča. There may have been influence from the c in vecis.{{R:lv:LEV|sens}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (usually, in the plural) ancestor ancient relatives, e.g., the originators of an ethnic group, a clan, a family tāli senči — distant ancestors dzimtas senči — (family, clan) ancestors senču dieviancestral gods senču kultsancestor worship
  2. (palaeontology) ancestor species of plants or animals from an earlier time period, from which modern species have evolved zirga sencis — the ancestor of the horse putnu senči — the ancestors of the birds
  3. (colloquial) parents syn. vecāki dzīvot uz senču rēķina — to live at (one's) parents' expense
related terms:
  • senatne
  • sens
  • senums
sist etymology The origin of this word is not entirely clear. It has been compared with Ancient Greek κεντέω 〈kentéō〉, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱent- 〈*ḱent-〉: its *ḱn̥t 〈*ḱn̥t〉 would have yielded Proto-Baltic *šint-, whence Latvian sīt-, probably the stem of archaic term sīts. This hypothesis, however, does not explain the short i in the present stem sit- (with the s in the infinitive from *sit-ti > sist). A possibly better hypothesis is to derive sist from Proto-Indo-European *sey-: its *si- would have yielded Proto-Baltic *sit- with an extra t, whence sit-ti > sist. The meaning would have changed from “to flex one's muscles” to “to use one's muscles (to hit),” whence “to hit.”{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (intransitive, , often with a dative complement) to hit, to strike, to beat move a body part or an object in order to touch so as to inflict pain, injury or death; to hit in order to change or direct an object sist uzbrucējam — to hit the attacker sist bērnam pa pirkstiem — to hit a child on the fingers sist zirgam ar pātagu — to hit a horse with a whip Uldis sita... sitiens bija ass, spēcīgs un precīzs: trāpīja taisni sejā — Uldis hit... the hit was sharp, strong and precise: straight in the face jūs man nekādā ziņā nesistu, ja riskētu vienas pļaukas vietā pretī saņemt divas — you would never hit me, if you risked to get two slaps for every one you give
  2. (transitive) to hit, to strike, to beat (something) sist mušas — to hit (and kill) flies sist ar pātagu zāli — to hit the grass with a whip sist nost, zemē — to kill (lit. to strike down, to the ground) te ļaudis sita, līdz asinīm — here they beat people, till they bleed meitene kliedza, vaimanāja, skrēja cūkai priekšā, sita to ar stibu — the girl screamed, howled, ran to the pig (and) hit it with a cane
  3. (colloquial, in armed combat) to hit to attack, defeat the enemy mūsu karstākā vēlēšanās bija sist ienaidnieku tā, lai to pēc iespējas ātrāk padzītu no mūsu teritorijas — our most ardent desire was to hit the enemy so as to drive him out of our territory as soon as possible
  4. (transitive) to hit, beat move a body part or an object in order to touch in order to change or direct an object in a desirable way, or to obtain a certain effect, to make noise, etc. sist ar āmuru kaļamo dzelzi — to hit malleable iron with a hammer sist bumbu ar kāju — to hit the ball (with one's foot) sist dēlī naglas — to hit (= drive) the nails in(to) the board sist kājas pret grīdu — to hit (one's) feet against the floor pie kantora puiši sita volejbolu — near the office the boys were hitting (= playing) volleyball zirgu pakavi sit ielas bruģu akmeņus caurām dienām — the horse hooves hit the street pavement all day long
  5. (transitive) to hit, to break to cause something to split or shatter sist traukus, stiklu — to hit (= break) dishes, glass Zenta rosījās pie plīts un sita olas — Zenta was busy at the stove and (she) hit (= broke) (some) eggs
  6. (transitive, in table or card games) to hit, to get to obtain a piece or card from one's opponent, according to the rules of the game sist laidni — to hit (= get) (the opponent's) bishop (in chess) sist kārava dūzi — to hit (= get) (the opponent's) ace of diamonds sist trumpas — to hit the trump
  7. (transitive) to slam, to shut (or also to open) noisily, violently (e.g., a door, window, etc.) sist durvis — to slam the door bet tu sitot staļļa durvis par daudz stipri... ka cienīgā nemaz nevarot dabūt aizmigt — but you apparently slammed the stable door too strongly... so that the honorable (lady) could not get to sleep gājējs... ieiet pa mazajiem vārtiņiem, kurus vējš... sit no vienas puses uz otru — the pedestrian entered by the little gate, which the wind slammed (shut) from one side to the other “telegrammas!”... brašs puisis, sārts un saskrējies, uz sliekšņa sita vaļā savu ādas somu — “telegramme!”... a fine young man on the threshold, healthy, quick to the door, hit his leather bag open (= opened it strongly and decisively) tikko koridorā atskanēja zvans, visi skolēni sita ciet grāmatas un cēlās augšā — as soon as the bell rang in the corridor, all students slammed their books shut and stood up
  8. to hit, to beat to make noise by rapidly touching something; to play a percussion instrument sist plaukstas — to clap (lit. hit) (one's) hands, to applaud sist papēžus — to snap, to click (lit. to hit) (one's) heels sist spārnus — to flap (lit. to hit) (one's) wings aizmirsusi, ka esmu naktskreklā, situ pie rūts un māju ar roku — having forgotten that I had (only) a nightgown on, I hit the (window) pane and wave my hands no visa spēka situ pa dzelzīm apkaltajiem vārtiem — with all (my) strength I hit on the corrugated iron gate viņš prot arī bungas sist — he also knows how to beat (= play) the drums un tā es arī situ šķīvjus visos jaunatnes simfoniskā orķestra koncertos — so I also beat (= play) the cymbals in the concerts of the symphonic orchestra (during) all my youth (= I spent my youth doing it)
  9. (in the 3rd person; of clocks) to hit, to strike to produce noise so as to indicate the time pulkstenis sit nepareizi — the clock is striking wrong viņš dzirdēja, kā pulkstenis gaitenī sita stundas — he heard the clock in the corridor striking the hours saimnieces galā sienas pulkstenis sit septīto stundu — in the hostess' gala the clock strikes seven vecais pulkstenis sit divpadsmit reizes — the old clock strikes twelve times
  10. (intransitive, in the 3rd person; of one's heart or pulse) to beat, to pulse strongly and rapidly sirds strauji sit — the heart is beating fast Ivu pārņēma nepazīts gurdums, sirds dobji sita, un vajadzēja apsēsties uz akas grodiem — an unfamiliar fatigue overcame Iva, (her) heart beat hollow, and (she) had to sit on the well curb Juhaness smagi elpoja... skaidri redzēju, kā viņa deniņos sita pulss' — Juhaness was breathing heavily... I saw clearly that (his) pulse was beating in his temples galva kļuva vēl smagāka, un kaut kas ļoti spēcīgi sita ausīs... likās - tās pārplīsīs — (his) head became even heavier, and something was beating powerfully in his ears... it felt as if it was going to explode
  11. (in the 3rd person) to hit, to strike, to throw, to shoot to move fast and strongly against something; to cause motion in something krusa sit sejā — the hail hits (one's) face (lit. on one's face) sit sejā asi zari — sharp branches hit (one's) face vējš sit sniegu sejā — the wind hits (= throws) the snow on (one's) face vējš un lietus sit brezentu ap galvām, pleciem un mugurām — the wind and the rain hit (= throw) the tarpaulin on the heads, shoulders and backs (of the travelers) ugunskurs sit augšup sārtas liesmas — the fire hits (= throws) red flames up strūklaka sit šļakatas — the fountain hits (= throws, causes) splashes upe sit viļņus — the river is hitting (= making) waves ūdens sāka mutuļus sist — the (river) water began to hit (= make) swirls mazgājamā mašīna sita putas pa gaisu, šļakstināja ūdeni uz grīdas — the washing mashine hit (= threw, shot) foam in the air and splashed water on the floor
  12. (intransitive, in the 3rd person) to hit, to strike to have a sudden, powerful effect on the sensory organs spilgtā prožektoru gaisma sita acīs — the bright projector light hit the eyes (lit. in the eyes) smags gaiss rūgteni sit nāsīs — the heavy air hits bitterly in (people's) noses
  13. (transitive) to move (a body part) suddenly zirgs sitis galvu sāns, izvairoties no suņa uzbrukuma — the horse hit (= quickly moved) the side of (his) head, avoiding the attack of the dog
  14. (colloquial) to hit to type, to write down with a typewriter or similar device neskaitāmas reizes mašīnrakstīšanas kursos bija jāsit vieni un tie paši vārdi — in the typewriting course (one) had to hit (= type) the very same words countless times kāpēc jūs nesitāt telegrammu, mēs būtu aizbraukuši pretim — why didn't you hit (= send) a telegram, we would have departed (immediately) (if you had)
  15. (colloquial) to hit, to churn, to stir into a foam or paste sist uzputeni — to hit (= stir, churn) mousse pie virtuves loga Paps pamanīja saimnieci, kas sita olu kulteni — at the window, Paps was watching the farmer's wife, who was hitting (= stirring, scrambling) eggs
skābs etymology From the same stem as the verb skābt (q.v.), made into an adjective.{{R:lv:LEV|skābt}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
verb: {{head}}
  1. lv-inflection of skābt
  2. lv-inflection of skābt
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. sour having a taste similar to, e.g., lemon skābs ābolssour apple skābs vīnssour wine skāba garšasour taste uz galdiņa stāvēja turziņa ar skābajām konfektēm — on the little table was the little bag with the sour candy Latvijā izaudzētas vairākas saldo un skābo ķiršu šķirnes — in Latvia many species of sweet and sour cherries (are) grown
  2. sour that which was acidified, fermented; syn. skābēts skābais, saskābis krējumssour cream skābais piens (= rūgušpiens)sour milk skābi, skābēti kāposti — sauerkraut (lit. sour cabbage) skābi, skābēti gurķi — pickled (lit. sour) cucumbers skābie piena produkti darbojas pret mikrobiemsour milk products work against microbes, germs
  3. (chemistry) acid having acid or acid-like features skābais sālsacid salt skābā krāsvielaacid dye skābais iezisacid rock (= containing a lot of silica)
  4. (of smells) sour, acid having a smell similar to that of, e.g., lemons or vinegar skāba smarža, smakasour smell skāba pelējuma smaka — the sour smell of mold
  5. (colloquial) surly, grumbling, impolite; frustrate “vai arī mēs nevarējām atbraukt vakar!” spiningotāji sev pārmeta, savilkuši skābas sejas — “we could have gone back yesterday!” the fishermen accused themselves, putting on a sour face “bet ja nu es pati gribētu pie jums iet par sievu?” Zina smējās; Krusa izspieda skābu vīpsnu un gāja laukā — “but (what) if I myself wanted to be(come) your wife?” Zina laughed; Krusa produced a sour smirk and walked out
related terms:
  • skābe
  • skābeklis
  • skābt, skābēt
skuķe etymology From skuķis + e, a more recent derivation; the masculine form skuķis is older.{{R:lv:LEV|skuķis}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) girl, young woman Gundagas skopajās atmiņās Dagmāra bija palikusi kā izstīdzējusi, neglīta, garstilbaina skuķe — in Gundaga's stingry memory, Dagmāra had remained a thin, ugly, long-legged girl trešā stāva balkonā sīka skuķe brūnā skolnieces apģērbā visu laiku sēd nepakustēdamās — on the third floor balcony a girl in brown schoolgirl uniform was sitting, all the time without moving kas sagrāvis viņa autoritāti, ka šie zeņķi un skuķes uzdrošinās viņu neklausīt? — what had broken his authority, so that these boys and girls dared to disobey him?
  2. (colloquial) young woman who does not lead a decent life, who is slutty, or a possible criminal vienā rudens svētdienā atnāca atkal Andrejs uz pirtiņu ciemoties, bet viņam līdzi kāda pavisam sveša skuķe; vēlāk, projām ejot, viņa pat noliecās bučot Andreja mātei roku — on an autumn Sunday Andrejs came back to the sauna to visit, and some totally unknown woman came to him; later, while walking away, she leaned over to kiss Andrejs' mother's hand
Synonyms: (of "girl") meitene, meitenīte, skuķēns, (of "young, unmarried woman") meita, meitene, skuķis
antonyms:
  • (of "girl") zēns, puika, puisēns, puisītis, zeņķis
  • (of "young, unmarried woman") zēns, puika, puisis
skuķēns etymology From skuķis + ēns. pronunciation {{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) little girl Ingūna vēl nevarēja lepoties ar briedumu, kas meitenes atšķir no skuķēniem — Ingūna could not yet boast of maturity, that which distinguishes young women from little girls sīks skuķēns, tāds kā pelēks griezes bērns, tecēja pa celiņu — a little girl, just like a baby gray corncrake, ran through the passage
Synonyms: meitene, meitenīte
antonyms:
  • puika, puisēns, puisītis, zēns, zeņķis
skuķis etymology From skust, a dialectal variant of skūt: a derived form *skutis > *skuķis (compare with *katis > kaķis), probably generalized from Courland dialects. The original meaning was “that which scratches, scrapes,” probably referring at first to ticks or lice, then later to children (probably because of their small size; in some dialects, it can still refer to boys), and finally “girl.” The masculine form is older, possibly from an earlier neuter; the feminine form skuķe is more recent.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) girl, young woman Brekšiem bija trīs bērni: Jūle, prāvs skuķis, jau gana vecumā, Dāvis un Rūdis — the Brekšs had three children: Jūle, a big girl, already quite old, Dāvis and Rūdis Andreja sieva vairākkārt nosauca pakaļ savam skuķim, lai nesabrien kurpītes — Andrejs' wife went many times to call her girl, so that she wouldn't get her little shoes wet priekšā iznāca meitene zaļā tērpā un kurpēs ar neticami augstiem papēžiem... “velna skuķis!” viņš nogrozīja galvu; “kā viņa dzied un kā skatās!” — forward came a young woman in a green dress and shoes with incredibly high heels... “darn girl!” he shook his head; “she sings and looks so great!”
  2. (colloquial) young woman who does not lead a decent life, who is slutty, or a possible criminal
Synonyms: (of "girl") meitene, meitenīte, skuķēns, (of "young, unmarried woman") meita, meitene, skuķe
antonyms:
  • (of "girl") zēns, zeņķis, puika, puisēns, puisītis
  • (of "young, unmarried woman") zēns, puika, puisis
skūpstīt etymology From sūkstīt, the iterative form of sūkt (q.v.), via metathesis of k and ū and epenthesis of p, perhaps dissimilated from a previous k (sūkstīt > *skūstīt > *skūkstīt > skūpstīt). A verb skūstīties is attested in 19th-century texts. Note, however, that alongside sūkstīties, skūstīties there is also a dialectal variant sūpstīties; the standard form skūpstīt might therefore result from the merging or contamination of both stems sūkstīt and sūpstīt. In some dialects, the original meaning “to suck repeatedly” can still be found (skūpstīt sukura graudu “to suck a sugar cube”). (Lithuanian dialectal skupstýti is probably a borrowing from Latvian.){{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to kiss to touch with one's lips, in order to show love, friendship, or respect, devotion skūpstīt bērnu — to kiss a child skūpstīt mātei roku — to kiss mother's hand skūpstīt (kādu) uz pieres, uz vaigiem, uz lūpām — to kiss (someone) on the forehead, on the cheeks, on the lips Es tevi skūpstīt drīkstu vien uz vaiga — I may kiss you only on the cheek zvērēt padevību, skūpstot kunga roku, kājas, piedurkni — to swear devotion (by) kissing the lord's hand, feet, sleeve
Synonyms: bučot (colloquial)
related terms:
  • skūpsts
skūpsts {{was fwotd}} {{slim-wikipedia}} etymology From the same stem as the verb skūpstīt (q.v.), made into a masculine first-declension noun; probably a back-formation.{{R:lv:LEV|skūpstīt}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. kiss a touch with the lips, used to express love, friendship, respect, devotion viegls skūpsts — light kiss vēss skūpsts — cold kiss draudzīgs skūpsts — friendly kiss karsts skūpsts — hot kiss kvēls, kaislīgs skūpsts — passionate kiss mainīt skūpstus — to exchange kisses tajā vakarā viņš izprata, kas ir mīļotas meitenes skūpsts — that night he understood what is the kiss of a beloved girl Justs acumirklī apklusināja Skaidrīti ar skūpstu — Justs instantly silenced Skaidrīte with a kiss
Synonyms: buča (colloquial)
related terms:
  • skūpstīt
smiekls etymology Apparently a parallel form to an older *smietl(a)s, derived from the verb smiet with an additional l.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (usually, plural) laugh, laughter rhythmic, relatively short vocal sound produced by humans to express mirth, joy, well-being, but also contempt, rejection priecīgi smiekli — happy laugh, laughter labsirdīgi smiekli — good-natured laugh skaļi smiekli — loud laughter klusi smiekli — quiet laughter ļauni smiekli — evil laughter valdīt smeklus — to control one's laugh (= to refrain from laughing) izspiest smieklu — to squeeze out a laugh (= to make oneself laugh) plīst no, aiz smiekliem — to burst into laughter izplūst smieklos — to start laughing (lit. to exude in laughter) viņas smiekli skanēja dzidri un gaiši — her laughter sounded clear and bright apkārt Andrim skan tik sirsnīgi smiekli, ka pilnīgi pret paša gribu arī Andris sāk smaidīt, un tad jau viņš skaļi smejas — around Andris there was such sincere, warm laughter, that wholly against his will Andris began to smile, and soon he was laughing loudly
  2. (in art) laugh humor, satire mākslā vajadzīgi šie kontrasti: smiekli un nopietnība, bezbēdība un traģika — art needs these contrasts: laughter and seriousness, light-heartedness and tragedy
  3. (colloquial) trifle something insignificant, unimportant kā atnācu, tā arī aiziešu, nav jau nemaz tik tālu; vasarā tīrais smiekls... ar divriteni pusstundā — as I came, I will also leave, it is not that far; in the summer just a laugh (= trifle, piece of cake)... half an hour by bike
  4. (colloquial, in the genitive, used adjectivally) ridiculous, insignificant, unimportant smiekla lietaridiculous, insignificant thing pirkt par smiekla cenu — to buy (something) for a ridiculous, insignificant price par smiekla naudu te varēja iebaudīt cīsiņus ar kartupeļu biezeni — for a ridiculous, insignificant (amount of) money one could here enjoy sausages with mashed potatoes
In the basic sense of "laugh", "laughter", the plural forms are almost always used instead of the singular forms.
related terms:
  • smiet, smieties
stingrs etymology From the same stem as the verb stingt (q.v.), with an extra (adjectivizing?) r. A parallel form without the r yielded stings. Cognates include Lithuanian stiñgras, stingrùs, stìngrus. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}, {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. of objects, materials, etc. firm, strong, rigid capable of resisting the actions of mechanical forces without harm or change stingra sijastrong, firm beam stingra construkcijastrong, firm construction stingra atsperestrong, firm spring stingrs rāmisstrong, firm, rigid frame stingrs audumsstrong fabric stingrs savienojumsfirm, rigid compound stingra masafirm, rigid mass pamats te stingrs, tu ar savu buldozeru vari droši braukt virsū! — the foundation is strong, firm here, you and your bulldozer can safely ride on top (of it)! “piesēdieties, lūdzu”, viņa pastūma Berga kundzei stingrāko krēslu — “please sit down,” she pushed to(ward) Mrs Bergs the a firmer, stronger chair olu baltumus kopā ar cukuru saputo stingrās putās — one whips the whites of the eggs together with the sugar into a firm foam
  2. (of living beings, their bodies) firm, strong, sturdy having much strength; physically well developed, not weak, not brittle stingrs zirgsstrong horse stingri kokistrong, firm trees tēvs bija vēl stingrs vecis, kādreiz strādājis kalēja darbus — (his) father was still a strong old man, (who) had once worked as a blacksmith jēriņš, kaut arī lēnām, brieda arvien stingrāks un apaļāks — the little lamb, albeit slowly, was growing increasingly stronger and rounder stingrais augums, kuru apņēma sarkani puķota katūna kleitiņa, gan rādīja jau sievieti, bet viņas seja... atgādināja biklu skolnieci — her firm height (= body), hugged by a little flowery cotton dress, already showed a woman, but her face... recalled the timid schoolgirl viņa zina, ka pēc pāris nedēļām vīra rokas būs daudz stingrākas nekā šobrīd... viņai patīk stipras rokas — she knows that after a couple of weeks (her) husband's hands will be much firmer, stronger than now... she likes strong hands
  3. firm, strong done, happening with energy, strength; affecting (something else) strongly rokas spiediens - stingrs, kā jau cilvēkiem, kas draugos ar tehniku — (his) handshake (is) firm, like that of someone who is friends with the technique eju dēlam pa priekšu stingriem, noteiktiem soļiem — I go ahead of (my) son (with) firm, determined steps
  4. firm, strong, rigorous showing above average intensity vējš ar katru stundu kļuva aizvien stingrāks — with every hour, the wind became increasingly stronger togad bija tāda pati agra un stingra ziema kā šogad, tikai sals uzknieba vēl niknāk — that year winter was just as rigorous as this year, only the frost was biting even more wildly (= strongly, painfully)
  5. of ideas, norms, principles, actions, or the people who espouse them firm, strong, rigorous, strict based on certain, usually fixed, opinions, viewpoints; expressing such viewpoints stingrs principsfirm principle stingrs likumsrigorous, strict law stingra nostājafirm, rigorous stance stingra pārliecībafirm, strong conviction, belief stingra tīcībastrong faith stingrs rīkojumsstrict instructions, orders stringra audzināšanastrict upbringing stingrs rājensstrong, firm reprimand stingrs skolotājs, audzinātājsstrict teacher, educator stingrs tēvsstrict father stingra sejastrict, firm face slimnieks jāievēro stingrs režīms — the patient must observe a strict regime viņi bija save ceļa gājēji ar stingriem uzksatiem par dzīvi un cilvēkiem — they were going their own way, with firm, strict opinions about life and people veltīgi cerēt, māmiņa ir stingra — it is futile to hope (for more freedom), mommy is strict meitene izskatījās neatkarīga un ar stingru raksturu — the girl looked independent and strict of character
  6. (of social phenomena) strong, firm, stable which does not change in time stingra valsts varastrong state power stingrs miersfirm, stable peace
  7. (colloquial, of alcoholic beverages) strong with high alcohol content Pētera šņabis bija tik stingrs un krietns, ka viņa slava bija izplatījusies pat vācu aprindās — Pēteris' vodka was so strong and robust that his fame had spread even in German circles
  8. (colloquial, adverbial form) very; fully kažociš bija stingri vien apvalkāts — the fur coat was strictly (= very) worn, shabby
Synonyms: (of "rigid", "stiff") ciets, stings, stīvs, (of "strong") spēcīgs, stiprs
related terms:
  • stings
  • stingt
strēbt
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (colloquial) to eat (e.g., soup), often with noise
sūds etymology Cognate with Lithuanian šūdas.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (vulgar) shit solid excrement
  2. (vulgar) something worthless, low quality; bad, harmful
  3. (vulgar) bad person
sukāt etymology From the same stem as suka (q.v.), made into a second conjugation verb stem (ending -āt).{{R:lv:LEV|suka}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. (of people) to brush, to comb to smooth one's hair with a brush, a comb sukāt matus — to brush one's hair sukāt galvu — to brush one's head (= hair) jo intensīvāk matus sukā, jo tiem dabiskāks kritums — the more intensively (one) brushes (one's) hair, the more naturally they fall kauna, kauna tev, meitiņa, / nesukāti tev matiņi! — shame, shame on you, girl / your hair is not brushed (unkempt)
  2. (of animals) to brush to smooth, also to clean, an animal, its fur, with a brush kučieris staļļa priekšā sukā un tīra zirgus — the coachman brushes and cleans the horses in front of the stable
  3. (of flax, hemp and similar plants) to heckle, to comb with a heckle to pull the fiberss through a heckle — a brush-like instrument — in order to remove the straw from the fibers sukāt linus — to comb, to heckle flax nu viņa izskatījās visa kā sukātu linu sauja — now she looked as if she were combing some flax
  4. (colloquial) to birch, to thrash, to beat, usually as punishment nu atkal māte sukās par nedarbiem — now again mother will thrash me for (my) mischief “Labdien, cienījams skolas kungs!” māte sveicināja paklanīdamās un stūma dēlu uz priekšu: “atvedu jums ko sukāt vienu palaidni” — “good morning, honored school principal!” the mother greeted with abow and pushed (her) son forward: “I am bringing you a mischief-maker to punish
  5. (colloquial) to gobble, to eat hastily, with great appetite sukāt maizi — to eat, to gobble (lit. brush) bread sukā tikai visu nost! — just eat (lit. brush) it all up! te pārdevēji katru brīdi varēja sēst klāt un sukāt par velti kunga speķi un kāpostus — here the salesmen could at any moment sit down and quickly eat bacon and cabbage for free tikko ticis atpakaļ laivā, šis jau raisa maisu vaļā un ņemas sukāt, it kā ābolu neredzējis — as soon as he was back on the boat, he opened the bag and started eating (lit. brushing), as if he hadn't seen the apple
  6. (colloquial) to go fast, to run tur būs labs gabals ko sukāt — there will be a lot (of distance) to run (lit. to brush) there līdz tilta viņam galam ir krietni ko sukāt — to the bridge he really had a lot (of distance) to run (lit. to brush) sukājām kājām pa šoseju — we ran (lit. brushed) on foot on the road
Synonyms: (of "brushing, combing") ķemmēt, (of "thrashing, beating") pērt, (of "running") skriet, (of "thrashing, beating") ?, (of "gobbling") locīt, (of "going fast, running") ?
related terms:
  • suka
sveika
phrase: {{lv-phrase}}
  1. hello (informal, to a female)
sveiks etymology There are divergent hypotheses on the origin of this word. Some suggest a connection with Old Norse sveigr, from Proto-Indo-European *swey-; with an extra -ko-s, one obtains Proto-Baltic *swey-ka-s, whence sveiks, originally “flexible, agile, nimble,” later “healthy,” then “safe, unharmed.” Others link sveiks to the verb veikt, from Proto-Indo-European *weyk-, whence also the adjective veikls: originally, sveiks might have come from a parallel form with an initial , with its meaning changing from “agile” to “healthy”, “unharmed.” Others yet derive sveiks from Proto-Indo-European *su-ey-kas, from *su- and *ey-, *h₁ey- 〈*h₁ey-〉; the original meaning would then have been “one who goes, walks well,” whence “healthy” and then “unharmed.” Given early observations (in a 17th-century dictionary) that sveiks was used mostly near the Lithuanian border, there is the possibility that it was a Lithuanism which spread from the south toward the north. Its use as a greeting is quite recent: the first occurrences are attested in the 1870s (with the mention that vesels was more frequent in this use), and it did not become general until the 20th century. Cognates include Lithuanian sveĩkas.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (often sveiks un vesels) safe; unharmed despite adverse circumstances paliec, dzīvo sveiks! — (may you) stay, live safe! (said when wishing someone well) visi sveiki un veseli pārnāca mājās — all returned home safe and sound tas taču bija Kārlēns, kuru māte apraudāja par mirušu, un piepeši dzīvs, sveiks, šinī pusē! — but that was Kārlēns, whose mother thought him dead, and suddenly (he was) alive, unharmed, on this side (= here)! Birkenbaums arvien cieti bija apzinājies, ka viņš sveiks izies caur dzīvi; kad kaut kur kāds bija sagriezis roku,..., tad puisis vienmēr to dzirdējis ar apziņu, ka viņu nekad nepiemeklēs šādas likstas — Birkenbaums was always perfectly aware (of the fact) that he would go through life unharmed; when somewhere someone cut his hand,..., then the young man always heard (about) it with the knowledge that he would never have such troubles
  2. used as a greeting or leave-taking word, expressing good wishes; hallo! greetings!; goodbye! farewell! sveika, māt!hallo, mum! sveiks, Pakalnu tēv!greetings, father Pakalns! sveiks, Jaunais gads!hallo, New Year! “labdien!” nācējs viņu sveicināja; “sveiki, kaimiņ!” atsaucās Valdis — “good morning!” the person who was coming greeted him; “hallo, neighbor!” Valdis replied sveiks,” viņa saka, ātri pagrūž zēnam roku atvadām — “goodbye,” she said, quickly waving her hand to the boy in a farewell (gesture)
In the contemporary language, sveiks is more frequently used as a greeting than as an adjective: sveiks! “hallo!” (to a man), sveika! (to a woman), sveikas! (to several women), sveiki! (to several men; to men and women together; to one person, male or female, indicating respect; cf. the plural pronoun jūs “you (pl.)” used to indicate respect, like French vous, German Sie or Russian вы 〈vy〉). Synonyms: (of "unharmed") vesels, (of "goodbye!") uz redzēšanos! atā! (colloquial)
related terms:
  • sveiciens
  • sveikas
  • sveikt, sveicināt
sviests etymology Originally the (adjectival) past passive participle of an old verb *sviest (cf. Lithuanian svíesti); the original meaning of sviests was thus “(something) smeared (on something else), (something) used for smearing;” cf. Russian масло 〈maslo〉 and мазать 〈mazatʹ〉, or Latin unguen and unguō. The verb *sviest would in turn come from *sviesti, from Proto-Baltic *swied-ti, from Proto-Indo-European *sweid- (whence also Latvian svīst “to sweat; to steam; to dawn” q.v.); its original meaning would have been “to make something shine” > “to smear with oil, so that it shines” > “to smear” (cf. its descendant svaidīt “to anoint,” originally the iterative form of *sviest). Cognates include Lithuanian svíestas.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. butter a dairy product, obtained from cream, with a high fat concentration krējuma sviests — cream butter skābkrējuma sviests — sour cream butter sūkalu sviests — whey butter svaigs sviests — fresh butter nesalīts sviests — unsalted butter kausēts sviests — melted butter sviesta trauks — butter bowl sautēt saknes sviestā — to sautee roots in butter sviesta rūpniecībabutter industry kult sviestu — to churn butter gaiteņa pustumsā viņai skrēja pretī sviestā ceptu pankūku smarža — in the darkness of the corridor the smell of pancakes fried in butter came (lit. ran) to her
  2. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) butter; contain butter, made with butter sviesta cepumibutter cookies sviesta mīklu gatavo no sviesta, cukura, kviešu miltiem, nedaudz pievienojot olasbutter dough is made from butter, sugar, (and) wheat flour, adding a little egg (= one or two eggs)
  3. butter, spread any food paste generally used as spread
  4. (slang) nonsense; something that is bizarre
  5. (slang) something that has poor quality, is not successful saiet sviestā — to deteriorate; to fail (lit. to go into butter)
šausmīgs etymology From šausmas + īgs. pronunciation {{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. horrible, terrible which causes feelings of terror šausmīgs sapnisterrible dream šausmīgs skatsawful sight viņš izskatījās šausmīgi — he looked awful
  2. horrible, terrible linked with terror, characterized by it; involving physical pain and suffering šausmīgs liktenisterrible fate šausmīga nāvehorrible death
  3. horrible, terrible someone who can do great evil, who is capable of cruelty šausmīgs nelietisterrible villain
  4. (colloquial) very bad viņa domāja, ka izskatās šausmīgi — she thought that she looked terrible
  5. (colloquial) very intense, big, enormous šausmīgas sāpesterrible pain gulēt gribējās šausmīgi — he wanted to sleep very much esmu šausmīgs, šausmīgs muļķis un neko nesaprotu — I am a big, big fool and don't understand anything
šķidrs etymology From the same stem as šķīst (q.v.): Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰēi-. With an extra suffix -d, it lead to two Proto-Baltic variants, one voiceless (with an extra ) and one voiced: *skied-, *skaid-, *skid- (whence, with an extra suffix -ru-s, šķidrs, skaidrs, and also — with a different suffix — skaists), and *gied-, *gaid-, *gid- (whence, also with an extra -ru-s, dzidrs, which is etymologically a variant of šķidrs), with some form influence between the two variants. The meaning evolved from “clear, limpid” > “(liquid) having no sediment, no sludge” > “liquid.” A different opinion is that šķidrs might ultimately derive from Proto-Indo-European *skei-.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (physics) liquid in a state of matter such that it can flow and take the form of its container šķidra vielaliquid substance pārvēst vielu šķidrā agregātstāvoklī — to convert a subtance to liquid state šķidrā degviela, šķidrais kurināmaisliquid fuel šķidrais stiklsliquid glass šķidrie minerālmēsliliquid mineral fertilizer šķidrie nokrišņiliquid precipitation (rainfall) šķidrs hēlijsliquid helium
  2. (of mixtures) liquid, thin composed mostly of liquids, having relatively little solid parts šķidra putra, zupaliquid, thin porridge, soup
  3. (colloquial, of hair, plumage, foliage, vegetation) thin, sparse šķidrie, gaišie matithin, light hair tajā dzīvoja vecs jakuts ar šķidru bārdiņu — there lived an old Yakut with a thin little beard krūmi aplokā gan nobiruši un šķidri — the bushes in the yard were rather fallen and thin (= had few leaves)
  4. (colloquial, of fabric, cloth) thin, worn off seju klāj šķidrs zīda lakatiņš — a thin silk veil covered (her) face lētais audums kļuvis pavisam šķidrs — the cheap fabric has become (after washing) really thin
  5. (colloquial, of groups of people) thin, sparse with members relatively far from each other pūlis pavisam mazs un šķidrs kļuvis — the crowd became small and thin
  6. (colloquial, of clouds, smoke, etc.) thin (having low density) reti bālganzili, šķidrs mākonīši — a few rare pale bluish thin little clouds
  7. (colloquial) thin, (scattered) few, not much, unimpressive, not good aplausi bija šķidri — the applause was thin šie man prasa: “kā ar mācībām?” “šķidri”, es saku — they ask me: “how about your training?” “thin” (= bad), I answer
Synonyms: (of hair, groups of people) rets, (of hair, fabric, mixtures) plāns
antonyms:
  • (of "state of matter") ciets (“solid”), gāzveidīgs (“gaseous”)
  • (of "thin") biezs, blīvs
šlipse A Borrowing from German Schlips.
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (colloquial) necktie
Apparently, šlipse is more colloquial, and thus less frequent in written Latvian, than kaklasaite. Synonyms: kaklasaite, kakla saite
šlipsē
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
šlipsei
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
šlipsēm
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
šlipses
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
  3. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
  4. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
šlipsēs
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
šlipsi
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
  2. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
šlipsu
noun: {{head}}
  1. (colloquial form) lv-inflection of šlipse
švaks etymology A Borrowing from German schwach. Compare Dutch zwak, Swedish svag. pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
  • audio {{audio}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (colloquial) weak, poor švaka veselībapoor health
tāpele
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. (dialectal, colloquial) blackboard; alternative form of tāfele
tauta etymology From Proto-Baltic *tawtā-, from Proto-Indo-European *towtā, an form of *tewtā-, *tewtéh₂ 〈*tewtéh₂〉, from the stem *tew-. This word had several meanings in its history, often still found in folk tales: “(group of) foreigners,” “strangers,” “enemy tribe,” etc. In the 17th century, ļaudis, not tauta, was used in the sence of “people, nation.” In translations of German texts, (non-native) translators often used tauta to mean also “tribe,” “nation,” “(social) group” (compare German Geschlecht, Gattung), even “(animal or vegetal) species.” In the 19th century, the range of uses was narrowed, especially in the 1850s and 1860s with the , where the word tauta became associated with the idea of “nation” and was first used to refer to the Latvian people. It then stabilized with its current (political-ethnographic) meaning. Cognates include Lithuanian tautà, xsv taud (from *tauta), Prussian tauto, Proto-Germanic *þeudō (Gothic 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰 〈𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰〉, Old English þeod, Old High German diot, German deutsch, from *diut-isk), Old Irish túath, osc touto.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. people, nation historically formed group of people, usually having a common culture, language, and territory latviešu tauta — the Latvian people, nation lietuviešu tauta — the Lithuanian people, nation vācu tauta — the German people, nation tautas izcelšanās — the origin, ethnogenesis of a nation tautas vēsturepeople's, national history tautu draudzība — friendship among nations kultūras tauta — cultured, cultivated nation tautas garsnational spirit (= cultural, spiritual, psychological specificity)
  2. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) people's, popular, folk, national that which is typical or traditional of a nation tautas daiļradefolk, national creation, art tautas mākslafolk, popular art tautas teikasfolk legends tautas daiļamatniecībafolk craft tautas mūzika, dejasfolk music, dances tautas dziesmafolk song, verse tautas ticējumifolk beliefs tautas ēdienipopular, ethnic food tautas tērpsfolk, ethnic costume tautas epossfolk epic tautas medicīna, ārstniecībafolk medicine
  3. people group of inhabitants of a given area Latvijas tauta — the people of Latvia tautas skaitīšana — census (lit. people counting)
  4. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) popular, people's that which was made by, is typical of, the people of a certain area; that which defends their interests tautas izglītības sistēmapopular education system tautas frontepopular front
  5. people a large number of individuals; people in general mašīnā tagad tautas ir vairāk, visiem sēdvietu nepietiek — there are more people in the car now, there won't be enough sitting space for all viņš gaida, kad sanāks vairāk tautas — he waited for (the time) when more people would come tauta runā, ka tu institūtā tikpat kā neesot redzētspeople are saying that it's as if you haven't been seen at the institute (= that you haven't been there often enough)
  6. (colloquial) people a group of individuals with some specific characteristic feature zvejnieki ir trūcīga tauta — fishermen are a poor people mēs, mākslinieki, esam nelaimīga tauta — we, the artists, are an unhappy people bērniem, bērniem vajag rakstīt! tā ir vispateicīgākā tauta — the children, the children must write! they are (lit. that is) the most promising, gratifying people kaķi vispār ir tāda tauta, no kuras nezini, ko kurā brīdī sagaidīsi — cats in general are such a people, from which you don't know what and when to expect
  7. (in folklore; usually plural)people from another region, family group, village tautu meita — (lit. daughter of the people) young woman from another region or family group tautu dēls — (lit. son of the people) young man from another region or family group
Synonyms: nācija, tautība
tētis etymology From Proto-Baltic *tet- (with expressive lengthening: eē), from Proto-Indo-European *teta, *tata, probably formed (via child language) by reduplication from Proto-Indo-European *átta. Cognates include Lithuanian tė̃tis, tetà, Prussian thetis, Russian dialectal та́та 〈táta〉, Polish tata, Czech teta, Gothic 𐌰𐍄𐍄𐌰 〈𐌰𐍄𐍄𐌰〉, Sanskrit तत 〈tata〉, Ancient Greek τέττα 〈tétta〉, τατᾶ 〈tatâ〉 (vocative), Latin tata (child language).{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
noun: {{lv-noun}}
  1. father, dad (with more emotional attachment)
  2. mamma un tēti! vēstule būs pavisam īsa — mum and dad! (this) letter will be very short un tad es katru dienu būšu pie tevis, tēt! — and then every day I'll be with you, dad! tagad rakstniecei 71 gads, tēvs miris, kad viņai bija trīspadsmit gadi, bet viņa mums stāsta par savu tēti, it kā tas vakar būtu aizgājis — the writer is now 71, (her) father died when she was 30, but she told us about her dad as if he had gone yesterday
  3. (colloquial) older man, old man sirms tētis — a gray-haired old man
The term tētis has more emotional overtones than its more neutral synonym tēvs. Synonyms: tēvs
tīrīt etymology From the same stem as tīrs (q.v.), of which it was originally the causative form (cf. its Lithuanian cognate týrinti).{{R:lv:LEV|tīrs}} pronunciation {{rfap}}
verb: {{lv-verb}}
  1. to clean to make something clean, cleaner, e.g.,by scrubbing or washing it tīrīt apģērbus, zābakus — to clean one's clothes, boots ķīmiski tīrīt mēteli — to dry-clean the coat (lit. to clean it chemically) tīrīt dzīvokli — to clean the apartment tīrīt zobus — to clean (one's) teeth tīrīt ielu no sniega — to clean the street from snow ūdens strūkla tīra ietves — the water spray cleans the sidewalks man gan vienmēr paticis tīrīt, kārtot, mazgāt... ja man būtu bijis laiks! — I always liked to clean, to tidy up, to wash... if only I had had time!
  2. to clean to remove something undesirable, e.g. dirt, stains, etc., from something else tīrīt putekļus — to clean the dust tīrīt gružus no celiņa — to clean the debris from the roadway sieviete apstājās netālu no durvīm un sāka tīrīt no drēbēm sniegu — the woman stood near the door and began to clean the snow from her clothes
  3. to clean to separate unnecessary parts, elements from something, in order to prepare it for use, or for further processing tīrīt zivis, saknes — to clean fish, roots tīrīt zvīņas (no zivju) — to clean the scales (from fish) tīrīt sēnes — to clean the mushrooms tīrīt graudu sēklas — to clean the grain seeds
  4. to clean to free a territory, an organization, etc. from undesirable people bet tur mežā nebūt nav mazāk bīstami: vācieši kopā ar šucmaņiem laiku pa laikam tīra mežus — but there in the forest it would not be less dangerous: the Germans and their policemen occasionally cleaned the forests
  5. (colloquial) to clean, to steal
related terms:
  • tīrība
  • tīrīgs, tīrīgums
  • tīrs
  • tīrums
traks etymology From Proto-Baltic *trek-, *trak-, from Proto-Indo-European *terk-, *trek-, from the stem *ter-. The meaning probably evolved from “turning, drilling” to “moving quickly” ( > “aggressively”) to “crazy, mad.” Cognates include Lithuanian trãkas.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
adjective: {{lv-adj}}
  1. (of animals) mad, rabid affected with rabies traks sunsmad dog (i.e., dog with rabies) vesels vilks cilvēkam neuzbrūk, taču vilki saslimst ar trakumsērgu un to arī pārnēsā; tādēļ ir gadījumi, kad traki vilki stipri sakoduši cilvēkus — a healthy wolf does not attack a person, but wolves (can) get sick with rabies and transmit it; because of this, there are cases in which mad wolves have severely bitten people
  2. (colloquial) mad, crazy, insane having mental, psychological problems; behaving as one who has lost his mind; expressing such condition strādā kā traks — (he) works like mad (= very intensively) trako kreklsmad ones' shirt (= straitjacket) trako māja, trako namsmad ones' house (= psychiatric hospital) un, kad viņš apprecējās ar latvieti, tad radi pasludinājuši baronu par traku un ielikuši klīnikā — and, when he got married to a Latvian woman, then (his) relatives declared that the baron was crazy and put him in a clinic nepieminiet man Galileju un Kepleru, kungs! tie vīri ir traki! viņi apgalvo, ka zeme griežoties, lai gan mēs katru mirkli jūtam, ka tā stāv kā pienaglota — don't mention Galileo and Kepler to me, sir! these men are crazy! they affirm that the earth turns, although we feel every minute that it stands (= remains motionless) as if nailed Edgars nezina, ko iesākt; nāk virsū traka nervozitāte... uztraukts viņš staigā pa dzīvokli — Edgars doesn't know what to say; a crazy nervousness came to him... excitedly he walked around in the appartment
  3. crazy which acts, behaves, speaks very loud, making noise, being fast, unrestrained; such that it expresses such behavior traka dejacrazy dance traka raudāšanacrazy crying pēkšņi aprima pat paši trakākie pļāpas un skaļākie ņirgas — suddenly even the craziest talks and loudest gossips were silent kaprālis sagatavojās trakākam bļāvienam šovakar; pavēra jau muti — the corporal prepared a crazier yell tonight; he has already opened (his) mouth' tas ir tāds traks vecums; līdz astoņpadsmit — that is such a crazy age; until eighteen
  4. crazy daring, reckless, careless; agressive, turbulent traks braucējscrazy driver traks skrējienscrazy race traka idejacrazy idea tikko pienākušie vīrieši laikam stāstīja agrākajiem par Brīviņu kunga trako braucienu — recently arrived men were maybe telling the early (people) about Mr Brīviņš' crazy trip uznāk traka vēlēšanās aplikt roku ap meitenes pleciem, noskūpstīt — there came a crazy desire to put (his) arm around the girl's shoulders, to kiss her Zigis savaldīja trako, neiebraukto ķēvi — Zigis restrained the crazy, untamed mare
  5. (colloquial) crazy very strong, very intense traka ēstgribacrazy appetite traka peļņacrazy (= very big) profits bija traka vēlme tikai pieskarties, piedurt pirkstu klavierēm — (he) had a crazy desire to touch, to rub (his) fingers on the piano
  6. crazy very intense, very powerful, having strong effects trakās krāsās izkrāsotas mašīnas — cars painted in crazy colors
  7. crazy very strong, very powerful, possibly destructive diena bija karsta kā pašā trakākajā jūlijā — the day was hot as in the craziest (= hottest) July laiva tuvojās krācēm; vēl brīdi, un viņi būs ierauti trakā virpulī — the boat was approaching the rapids; one more moment, and they would be dragged into the crazy vortex, whirlpool
  8. (in its adverbial form, as an intensifier) crazily; very, very much, terribly traki dārgsvery expensive traki skaistsvery beautiful viņš liekas traki gudrs vīrs, taisni tāds, kā mums vajadzīgs — he seems (to be) a very wise/smart man, exactly what we need un tev tik traki gribas aizdot? — do you (really) feel so much like lending (money)?
  9. (in its adverbial form, with būt “to be”) crazy unexpected; undesirable; unpleasant Krauklis iesaucas: “sieva, nu ir traki: pagalmā bruņoti vīri!” — Krauklis shouted: “wife, now it's crazy: in the yard (there are) armed men!”
  10. (with uz) crazy about liking, wanting something very much traks uz nauducrazy about money kaķis traks uz gaļu — the cat (is) crazy about meat
Synonyms: (of "crazy, mad, insane") ārprātīgs, neprātīgs, vājprātīgs
related terms:
  • trakot
tu etymology From Proto-Baltic *tū, Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ 〈*túh₂〉, *tū, *tu, genitive *tewe, dative *toy, *tebʰ(y)e, accusative *t(w)e. The Latvian tevis comes from *tevens, with an -en-increased form showing an additional s by analogy with other genitive plurals. The dative form was originally closer to Prussian tebbei; the current form tev has v due to influence from other declension forms, and the ending was reduced. The accusative tevi comes from *teven, with n by analogy to the accusative form of other words. The locative tevī was formed by analogy with i-stem nouns. Cognates include Lithuanian , Prussian , thu, toū, thou, tau, xsv tu, Church Slavic, Russian, Belarusian ты 〈ty〉, Ukrainian, Bulgarian ти 〈ti〉,Czech, Polish ty, Gothic 𐌸𐌿 〈𐌸𐌿〉, Old Norse, Old High German þū, Old English ðu, German du, English thou, Old Irish , Hittite zik, zikka (from *tega, from *te + *egō), -du- (from *tu), Sanskrit त्वम् 〈tvam〉, Avestan , Ancient Greek (Doric) τύ 〈tý〉, (Ionic) σύ 〈sý〉, Latin , xto tu, txb twe, tuwe, Ossetic ду 〈du〉, ды 〈dy〉.{{R:lv:LEV}} pronunciation
  • {{lv-IPA}}
{{rfap}}
pronoun: {{lv-pronoun}}
  1. (informal in the singular) you; (dated) thou; second person pronoun, referring to the addressee vai tu nāksi man līdzi? — are you coming with me? pieder tautai, tad tauta piederēs tev! — belong to the people, and then the people will belong to you! būt uz tu ar kādu — to be on intimate terms (lit. to be on thou) with someone
  2. (in the expression “ak tu...”) used to strengthen the meaning of a word or expression “ak tu to skaļo gaiļa rīkli!” māte priecājas — “oh you loud rooster throat!” mother said happily ak tu mūžs! cūka izlauzusies no aizgalda! — ah (you) life! the pig escaped from the pen!
The form tavs is a possessive pronoun ('your'), while tevis is a true genitive form ('of you'). The dative form tevim is used only optionally, with prepositions.
related terms:
  • tavējs
Page 2 of 2

All Languages

Languages and entry counts